well as to preparing academic presentations and posters.
A practical presentation carefully introduces such basic writing mechanics as word choice and word location, sentence structure, and paragraph organization before moving into manuscript planning and organizational strategies. Extensive hands-on guidance for composing scientific documents and presentations then follows.
Relevant and multi-disciplinary examples taken from real research papers and grant proposals by writers ranging from students to Nobel Laureates illustrate clear technical writing as well as common mistakes that one should avoid. Examples are drawn from a broad range of scientific disciplines including medicine, molecular biology, biochemistry, ecology, geology, chemistry, engineering, and physics.
Extensive end-of-chapter exercise sets provide the opportunity to review style and composition principles and encourage readers to apply them to their own writing.
Writing guidelines and revision checklists warn scientists against common pitfalls and equip them with the most successful techniques to revise a scientific paper, review article, or grant proposal.
Annotated text passages bring the writing principles and guidelines to life by applying them to real-world, relevant, and multidisciplinary examples.
Clear, easy-to-follow writing style is understandable to both native and non-native English speakers; special ESL features address problems faced by non-native English speakers.
Eight chapters on grant writing demonstrate how to write successful grant applications and how to avoid the most common application mistakes.
Covering all the facets of communication that scientists need to master, Scientific Writing and Communication: Papers, Proposals, and Presentations is ideal for a wide range of readersfrom upper-level undergraduates and graduate students to postdoctoral fellows, faculty, and professional researchersin the life sciences, medicine, psychology, chemistry, and engineering.
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Chapters 2-15, 20-24, and 28 end with a Summary and Problems; Chapters 16-19, 25-27, and 29 end with a Summary; CHAPTER 1. PRELUDE; 1.1 Importance of Writing in Science; 1.2 About Readers; 1.3 About Writers; 1.4 About This Book; 1.5 Design of This Book; PART I. SCIENTIFIC WRITING PRINCIPLES: STYLE AND COMPOSITION; CHAPTER 2. INDIVIDUAL WORDS; 2.1 The Central Principle; 2.2 Word Choice; 2.3 Word Choice--Special Cases; 2.4 Redundancies and Jargon; 2.5 Abbreviations; 2.6 Nomenclature and Terminology; 2.7 Dictionaries; CHAPTER 3. WORD LOCATION; 3.1 Readers' Expectations; 3.2 Competition for Emphasis; 3.3 Placement of Words; CHAPTER 4. TECHNICAL SENTENCES; 4.1 Grammar and Technical Style; 4.2 Person; 4.3 Voice; 4.4 Tense; 4.5 Sentence Length; 4.6 Verbs and Action; 4.7 Noun Clusters; 4.8 Pronouns; 4.9 Lists and Comparisons; 4.10 Faulty Comparisons; 4.11 Common Errors; CHAPTER 5. SPECIAL ESL GRAMMAR PROBLEMS; 5.1 Prepositions; 5.2 Articles; 5.3 Verbs; 5.4 Adjectives and Adverbs; 5.5 Nouns and Pronouns; 5.6 Grammar References; CHAPTER 6. FROM SENTENCES TO PARAGRAPHS; 6.1 Paragraph Structure; 6.2 Paragraph Organization; 6.3 Paragraph Coherence; 6.4 Condensing; PART II. PLANNING AND LAYING THE FOUNDATION; CHAPTER 7. THE FIRST DRAFT; 7.1 The Writing Process; 7.2 Prewriting; 7.3 Authorship; 7.4 Drafting a Manuscript; 7.5 Outlining and Composing a Manuscript; 7.6 Writer's Block?; 7.7 For ESL Authors; 7.8 Outside Help; CHAPTER 8. REFERENCES AND PLAGIARISM; 8.1 About References; 8.2 Selecting References; 8.3 Managing References; 8.4 Text Citations; 8.5 Plagiarism; 8.6 Paraphrasing; 8.7 References Within a Scientific Paper; 8.8 The Reference List; 8.9 Common Reference Styles; 8.10 Citing the Internet; 8.11 Footnotes and Endnotes; 8.12 Acknowledgments; CHAPTER 9. FIGURES AND TABLES; 9.1 General Guidelines; 9.2 Importance of Formatting and Placement of Information; 9.3 Figure or Table?; 9.4 General Information on Figures; 9.5 Types of Figures; 9.6 Formatting Graphs; 9.7 Examples of Graphs; 9.8 Figure Legends; 9.9 General Information on Tables; 9.10 Formatting Tables; 9.11 Other Kinds of Supplementary Information: Formulas, Equations, Proofs, and Algorithms; PART III. MANUSCRIPTS: RESEARCH PAPERS AND REVIEW ARTICLES; A. RESEARCH PAPERS; CHAPTER 10. THE INTRODUCTION; 10.1 Overall; 10.2 Content and Organization; 10.3 Elements of the Introduction; 10.4 Special Case: Introductions for Descriptive Papers; 10.5 Important Writing Principles for the Introduction; 10.6 Signals for the Reader; 10.7 Common Problems of Introductions; 10.8 Sample Introductions; 10.9 Revising the Introduction; CHAPTER 11. MATERIALS AND METHODS SECTION; 11.1 Overall; 11.2 Content; 11.3 Organization; 11.4 Important Writing Principles for Materials and Methods; 11.5 Ethical Conduct; 11.6 Common Problems of Materials and Methods Section; 11.7 Sample Materials and Methods Sections; 11.8 Revising the Materials and Methods Section; CHAPTER 12. RESULTS; 12.1 Overall; 12.2 Content; 12.3 Organization; 12.4 Important Writing Principles for the Results; 12.5 Signals for the Reader; 12.6 Common Problems of the Results Section; 12.7 Sample Results Sections; 12.8 Revising the Results Section; CHAPTER 13. DISCUSSION; 13.1 Overall; 13.2 Content; 13.3 Organization; 13.4 First Paragraph; 13.5 Middle Paragraphs; 13.6 Last Paragraph; 13.7 Important Writing Principles for the Discussion; 13.8 Signals for the Reader; 13.9 An Alternative: Results and Discussion; 13.10 Common Problems of the Discussion; 13.11 Sample Discussions; 13.12 Revising the Discussion; CHAPTER 14. ABSTRACT; 14.1 Overall; 14.2 Content; 14.3 Organization; 14.4 Applying Basic Writing Principles; 14.5 Signals for the Reader; 14.6 Common Problems of the Abstract; 14.7 Reasons for Rejection; 14.8 Revising the Abstract; CHAPTER 15. TITLES; 15.1 Overall; 15.2 Strong Titles; 15.3 The Title Page; 15.4 Running Title; 15.5 Key Words; 15.6 Revising the Title; CHAPTER 16. REVISING THE MANUSCRIPT; 16.1 Revising the First Draft; 16.2 Subseque