- Häftad (Paperback)
- Antal sidor
- OUP Oxford
- 18 figures; 12 black and white photos
- 235 x 156 x 31 mm
- Antal komponenter
- 860 g
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How We Reason
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Howard Gardner, author of 'The Mind's New Science' No cognitive scientist has thought more deeply about human reasoning than Philip Johnson-Laird. In an amazingly comprehensive volume, he presents the fruits of a lifetime of experimentation and reflection.
Ruth M.J. Byrne Vice Provost, Trinity College Dublin, University of Dublin, Ireland, and Professor of Cognitive Science, School of Psychology and Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin 'How We Reason' is the essential guide for anyone who wants to understand the human mind. Phil Johnson-Laird is both erudite and entertaining and his prose sparkles with wit and verve. This book paints a more complete picture of human thought than any other on inference. I couldn't put it down.
Dan Sperber, Director of Research, CNRS, Paris Philip Johnson-Laird's Mental Model Theory owes its outstanding impact on the psychology of reasoning to its unique breadth, insightfulness, and creativity. In 'How we Reason', Johnson-Laird has achieved the feat of presenting this challenging view of human thinking in a simple and yet comprehensive way, with concrete examples and elegant explanations. This highly readable book deserves a wide audience.
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<br>Phil Johnson-Laird was born in Yorkshire, England, in 1936. He left school at the age of 15 and spent ten years in a variety of occupations until he went to University College, London to read psychology. He later gained his Ph.D. there under the supervision of Peter Wason, and he joined the faculty in 1966. In 1971, he was a visiting member of the Institute of Advanced Study, Princeton, where he began a collaboration with George A. Miller. Subsequently, he held positions at the University of Sussex (1973-1981) and at the Medical Research Council's Applied Psychology Unit (1981-1989) in Cambridge, where he was also a Fellow of Darwin College. He returned to Princeton in 1989 to be a member of the faculty at the University, where he is the Stuart Professor of Psychology. His research concerns thinking, emotions, creativity, and music.<br>
1. Introduction; PART I - THE WORLD IN OUR CONSCIOUS MINDS; 2. Icons and Images; 3. Models of Possibilities: From Conjuring Tricks to Disasters; PART II - THE WORLD IN OUR UNCONSCIOUS MINDS; 4. Mental Architecture and the Unconscious; 5. Intuitions and Unconscious Reasoning; 6. Emotions as Inferences; 7. Reasoning in Psychological Illnesses; PART III - HOW WE MAKE DEDUCTIONS; 8. Only Connections; 9. I'm my own Grandpa: Reasoning About Identities and Other Relations; 10. Syllogisms and Reasoning about Properties; 11. Isn't Everyone an Optimist? The Case of Complex Reasoning; PART IV - HOW WE MAKE INDUCTIONS; 12. Modulation: A Step Towards Induction; 13. Knowledge and Inductions; 14. Sherlock Holmes's Method: Abduction; 15. The Balance of Probabilities; PART V - WHAT MAKES US RATIONAL; 16. Counterexamples; 17. Truths, Lies, and the Higher Reasoning; PART VI - HOW WE DEVELOP OUR ABILITY TO REASON; 18. On Development; 19. Strategies and Cultures; 20. How We can Improve our Reasoning; PART VII - KNOWLEDGE, BELIEFS, AND PROBLEMS; 21. The Puzzles of If; 22. Causes and Obligations; 23. Beliefs, Heresies, and Changes in Mind; 24. How we Solve Problems; PART VIII - EXPERT REASONING IN TECHNOLOGY, LOGIC, AND SCIENCE; 25. Flying Bicycles: How the Wright Brothers Invented the Airplane; 26. Unwrapping an Enigma; 27. On the Mode of the Communication of Cholera; 28. How we Reason