Doubly Fed Induction Machine: Modeling and Control for Wind Energy Generation Applications

av Gonzalo Abad, Jesus Lopez, Miguel Rodriguez, Luis Marroyo, Grzegorz Iwanski  (inbunden, 2011)

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Övrig information

GONZALO ABAD , PhD, is an Associate Professor in the Electronics Department at the Mondragon University, where he teaches modeling, control, and power electronics. JESUS LOPEZ , PhD, is an Assistant Professor in the Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department of the Public University of Navarra, where he teaches subjects related to the electrical drives and the processing of electrical power in wind turbines. MIGUEL RODRIGUEZ , PhD, is the Power Electronics Systems Manager at Ingeteam Technology, responsible for developing new power electronics for transmission and distribution grid applications. LUIS MARROYO , PhD, is an Associate Professor in the Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department of the Public University of Navarra, where he teaches courses on electrical machines and power electronics. GRZEGORZ IWANSKI , PhD, is an Associate Professor in the Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics at the Warsaw University of Technology, where he teaches courses on power electronics drives and conversion systems.

Innehållsförteckning

Preface xiii 1 Introduction to A Wind Energy Generation System 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Basic Concepts of a Fixed Speed Wind Turbine (FSWT) 2 1.2.1 Basic Wind Turbine Description 2 1.2.2 Power Control of Wind Turbines 5 1.2.3 Wind Turbine Aerodynamics 7 1.2.4 Example of a Commercial Wind Turbine 9 1.3 Variable Speed Wind Turbines (VSWTs) 10 1.3.1 Modeling of Variable Speed Wind Turbine 11 1.3.2 Control of a Variable Speed Wind Turbine 15 1.3.3 Electrical System of a Variable Speed Wind Turbine 22 1.4 Wind Energy Generation System Based on DFIM VSWT 25 1.4.1 Electrical Configuration of a VSWT Based on the DFIM 25 1.4.2 Electrical Configuration of a Wind Farm 33 1.4.3 WEGS Control Structure 34 1.5 Grid Code Requirements 39 1.5.1 Frequency and Voltage Operating Range 40 1.5.2 Reactive Power and Voltage Control Capability 41 1.5.3 Power Control 43 1.5.4 Power System Stabilizer Function 45 1.5.5 Low Voltage Ride Through (LVRT) 46 1.6 Voltage Dips and LVRT 46 1.6.1 Electric Power System 47 1.6.2 Voltage Dips 50 1.6.3 Spanish Verification Procedure 55 1.7 VSWT Based on DFIM Manufacturers 57 1.7.1 Industrial Solutions: Wind Turbine Manufacturers 57 1.7.2 Modeling a 2.4 MW Wind Turbine 72 1.7.3 Steady State Generator and Power Converter Sizing 79 1.8 Introduction to the Next Chapters 83 Bibliography 85 2 Back-to-Back Power Electronic Converter 87 2.1 Introduction 87 2.2 Back-to-Back Converter based on Two-Level VSC Topology 88 2.2.1 Grid Side System 89 2.2.2 Rotor Side Converter and dv/dt Filter 96 2.2.3 DC Link 99 2.2.4 Pulse Generation of the Controlled Switches 101 2.3 Multilevel VSC Topologies 114 2.3.1 Three-Level Neutral Point Clamped VSC Topology (3L-NPC) 116 2.4 Control of Grid Side System 133 2.4.1 Steady State Model of the Grid Side System 133 2.4.2 Dynamic Modeling of the Grid Side System 139 2.4.3 Vector Control of the Grid Side System 143 2.5 Summary 152 References 153 3 Steady State of the Doubly Fed Induction Machine 155 3.1 Introduction 155 3.2 Equivalent Electric Circuit at Steady State 156 3.2.1 Basic Concepts on DFIM 156 3.2.2 Steady State Equivalent Circuit 158 3.2.3 Phasor Diagram 163 3.3 Operation Modes Attending to Speed and Power Flows 165 3.3.1 Basic Active Power Relations 165 3.3.2 Torque Expressions 168 3.3.3 Reactive Power Expressions 170 3.3.4 Approximated Relations Between Active Powers, Torque, and Speeds 170 3.3.5 Four Quadrant Modes of Operation 171 3.4 Per Unit Transformation 173 3.4.1 Base Values 175 3.4.2 Per Unit Transformation of Magnitudes and Parameters 176 3.4.3 Steady State Equations of the DFIM in p.u 177 3.4.4 Example 3.1: Parameters of a 2 MW DFIM 179 3.4.5 Example 3.2: Parameters of Different Power DFIM 180 3.4.6 Example 3.3: Phasor Diagram of a 2 MW DFIM and p.u. Analysis 181 3.5 Steady State Curves: Performance Evaluation 184 3.5.1 Rotor Voltage Variation: Frequency, Amplitude, and Phase Shift 185 3.5.2 Rotor Voltage Variation: Constant Voltage-Frequency (V-F) Ratio 192 3.5.3 Rotor Voltage Variation: Control of Stator Reactive Power and Torque 195 3.6 Design Requirements for the DFIM in Wind Energy Generation Applications 202 3.7 Summary 207 References 208 4 Dynamic Modeling of the Doubly Fed Induction Machine 209 4.1 Introduction 209 4.2 Dynamic Modeling of the DFIM 210 4.2.1 ab Model 212 4.2.2 dq Model 214 4.2.3 State-Space Representation of ab Model 216 4.2.4 State-Space Representation of dq Model 229 4.2.5 Relation Between the Steady State Model and the Dynamic Model 234 4.3 Summary 238 References 238 5 Testing the DFIM 241 5.1 Introduction 241 5.2 Off-Line Estimation of DFIM Model Parameters 242 5.2.1 Considerations About the Model Parameters of the DFIM 243 5.2.2 Stator and Rotor Resistances Estimation by VSC 245 5.2.3 Leakage Inductances Estimation by VSC 250 5.2.4 Magnetizing Inductance and Iron Losses Estimation with No-Load Test by VSC 256 5.3 Summary 262 References 262 6 Analysis of the DFIM Under Voltage Dips 265 6.1 Introduction 265 6.2 Electromagnetic Force Induc