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About the Authors xvii Preface xix Acknowledgments xxi 1 Introduction to research 1 What is research? 2 Business research 2 Definition of business research 3 Research and the manager 3 Types of business research: applied and basic 5 Applied research 6 Basic or fundamental research 6 Managers and research 8 The manager and the consultant researcher 9 The manager researcher relationship 9 Internal versus external consultants/researchers 10 Internal consultants/researchers 10 Advantages of internal consultants/researchers 10 Disadvantages of internal consultants/researchers 11 External consultants/researchers 11 Advantages of external consultants/researchers 11 Disadvantages of external consultants/researchers 12 Knowledge about research and managerial effectiveness 12 Ethics and business research 13 Summary 13 Discussion questions 14 Case: The Laroche Candy Company 15 2 The scientific approach and alternative approaches to investigation 18 The hallmarks of scientific research 19 Purposiveness 20 Rigor 20 Testability 20 Replicability 21 Precision and confidence 21 Objectivity 22 Generalizability 22 Parsimony 22 The hypothetico-deductive method 23 The seven-step process in the hypothetico-deductive method 23 Identify a broad problem area 23 Define the problem statement 24 Develop hypotheses 24 Determine measures 24 Data collection 24 Data analysis 24 Interpretation of data 25 Review of the hypothetico-deductive method 26 Some obstacles to conducting scientific research in the management area 28 Alternative approaches to research 28 Positivism 29 Constructionism 29 Critical realism 29 Pragmatism 30 Summary 31 Discussion questions 31 3 The broad problem area and defining the problem statement 33 The broad problem area 33 Preliminary information gathering 36 Nature of information to be gathered 36 Background information on the organization 36 Literature the body of knowledge available to you 37 Defining the problem statement 38 What makes a good problem statement? 38 The research proposal 42 Managerial implications 43 Ethical issues in the preliminary stages of investigation 44 Summary 45 Discussion questions 45 Practice projects 47 4 The critical literature review 48 The purpose of a critical literature review 50 How to approach the literature review 51 Data sources 51 Searching for literature 53 Evaluating the literature 54 Documenting the literature review 55 Ethical issues 56 Summary 58 Discussion questions 58 Practice project 58 Appendix 59 Some online resources useful for business research 59 Bibliographical databases 62 APA format for referencing relevant articles 63 Referencing and quotation in the literature review section 64 5 Theoretical framework and hypothesis development 67 The need for a theoretical framework 68 Variables 68 Dependent variable 69 Independent variable 70 Moderating variable 72 The distinction between an independent variable and a moderating variable 73 Mediating variable 75 Theoretical framework 77 The components of the theoretical framework 78 Theoretical framework for the example of air safety violations 79 Hypothesis development 83 Definition of a hypothesis 83 Statement of hypotheses: formats 83 If then statements 83 Directional and nondirectional hypotheses 84 Null and alternate hypotheses 84 Hypothesis testing with qualitative research: negative case analysis 87 Managerial implications 90 Summary 90 Discussion questions 91 Practice project 93 6 Elements of research design 94 The research design 94 Purpose of the study: exploratory, descriptive, causal 96 Explor