The Third Edition of Content Analysis remains the definitive sourcebook of the history and core principles of content analysis as well as an essential resource for present and future studies. The book introduces readers to ways of analyzing meaningful matter such as texts, images, voices - that is, data whose physical manifestations are secondary to the meanings that a particular population of people brings to them.
Organized into three parts, the book examines the conceptual and methodological aspects of content analysis and also traces several paths through content analysis protocols. The author has completely revised and updated the Third Edition, integrating new information on computer-aided text analysis and social media. The book also includes a practical guide that incorporates experiences in teaching and how to advise academic and commercial researchers. In addition, Krippendorff clarifies the epistemology and logic of content analysis as well as the methods for achieving its aims.
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Klaus Krippendorff (PhD in Communication, University of Illinois, Urbana, 1967) is Professor of Communication and Gregory Bateson Term Professor for Cybernetics, Language, and Culture at the University of Pennsylvania's Annenberg School for Communication. Besides numerous publications in journals of communication, sociological methodology, cybernetics, and system theory, he authored Information Theory, Structural Models for Qualitative Data, a Dictionary of Cybernetics, edited Communication and Control in Society, and coedited The Analysis of Communication Content and Developments and Scientific Theories and Computer Techniques.
Besides supporting various initiatives to develop content analysis techniques and continuing work on reliability measurement, Klaus Krippendorffs current interest is fourfold: With epistemology in mind, he inquires into how language brings forth reality. As a critical scholar, he explores the conditions of entrapment and liberation. As a second-order cybernetician, he plays with recursive constructions of self and others in conversations; and as designer, he attempts to move the meaning and human use of technological artifacts into the center of design considerations, causing a redesign of design all of them exciting projects.
Preface Acknowledgments Introduction PART I. CONCEPTUALIZING CONTENT ANALYSIS 1. History 1.1 Some Precursors 1.2 Quantitative Newspaper Analysis 1.3 Early Content Analysis 1.4 Propaganda Analysis 1.5 Content Analysis Generalized 1.6 Computer Text Analysis 1.7 Qualitative Approaches 2. Conceptual Foundation 2.1 Definition 2.2 Epistemological Eleaborations 2.3 Examples 2.4 Framework 2.5 Contrasts and Comparisons 3. Uses and Interfaces 3.1 Traditional Overviews 3.2 Extrapolations 3.3 Standards 3.4 Indices and Symptoms 3.5 Linguistic Re-Presentation 3.6 Conversations 3.7 Institutional Processes 3.8 Areas of Likely Success PART II. COMPONENTS OF CONTENT ANALYSIS 4. The Logic of Content Analysis Design 4.1 Content Analysis Designs 4.2 Designs Prepatory to Content Analysis 4.3 Designs Exceeding Content Analysis 5. Unitizing 5.1 Units 5.2 Types of Units 5.3 Ways of Defining Units 5.4 Productivity, Efficiency, and Reliability 6. Sampling 6.1 Sampling in Theory 6.2 Sampling Techniques Applicable to Texts 6.3 Sample Size 7. Recording/Coding 7.1 The Function of Recording and Coding 7.2 Coder Qualifications 7.3 Coder Training 7.4 Approaches to Defining the Semantics of Data 7.5 Records 8. Data Languages 8.1 The Place of Data Languages in Analysis 8.2 Definitions 8.3 Variables 8.4 Nominal Variables 8.5 Orderings 8.6 Metrics 8.7 Mathematical Operations 9. Analytical Constructs 9.1 The Role of Analytical Constructs 9.2 Sources of Certainty 9.3 Types of Constructs 9.4 Sources of Uncertainty PART III. ANALYTICAL PATHS AND EVALUATIVE TECHNIQUES 10. Analytical/Representational Techniques 10.1 Counts 10.2 Cross-Tabulations, Associations, and Correlations 10.3 Multivariate Techniques 10.4 Factor Analysis and Multidimensional Scaling 10.5 Images, Portrayals, Semantic Nodes, and Profiles 10.6 Contingencies and Contingency Analysis 10.7 Clustering 11. Computer Aids 11.1 What Computers Do 11.2 How Computers Can Aid Content Analysis 11.3 Text Analyses 11.4 Computational Content Analyses 11.5 Qualitative Data Analysis Support 11.6 Frontiers 12. Reliability 12.1 Why Reliability? 12.2 Reliability Designs 12.3 a-Agreement for Coding 12.4 a-Agreement for Unitizing 12.5 a-Agreement for Coding Volumes of Identified Units 12.6 Statistical Properties of a 12.7 Other Coefficients and Correspondences 13. Validity 13.1 Validity Defined 13.2 A Typology for Validating Evidence 14. A Practical Guide 14.1 Designing an Analysis 14.2 Writing a Research Proposal 14.3 Applying the Research Design 14.4 Narrating the Results Glossary References About the Author