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'The concept of effectuation is as subtle as it is profound. On the one hand, it challenges long held beliefs about the nature of cause and effect in social science. On the other hand, it generates a host of new insights about social phenomena. This concept is particularly well suited to analyzing entrepreneurial behavior - behaviors undertaken in settings where the relationship between cause and effect is understood, at best, very poorly.' -- Jay B. Barney, The Ohio State University, US 'Things rarely turn out as we expected or intended. Neither rational choice between well-defined prospects nor commitment to a vision, which can be realised by will power or persuasion, offers a credible representation of much human activity - even the activities of entrepreneurs. But although uncertainty (or unknowledge) is inescapable it may be productively managed. If we understand our present circumstances and some of its possibilities, build constructive relationships with others, and be ready to adjust both our objectives and the means of achieving them in order to take advantage of new contingencies, then we can at least participate in shaping our own future. By taking this perspective Saras Sarasvathy makes entrepreneurship a natural human activity, expressing the limitations and potential of human motivation and human intelligence.' -- Brian J. Loasby, University of Stirling, UK 'In Effectuation Saras Sarasvathy presents a carefully researched and reasoned view of entrepreneurial behavior that both challenges and extends prevailing wisdom in the field. There is little doubt that these ideas will serve as an important foundation for anyone desirous of stimulating positive action in the world. With Effectuation we are equipped to provide a generation of students and managers with the methods to make and find opportunities that create value... everywhere.' -- Leonard A. Schlesinger, President, Babson College, US
Saras D. Sarasvathy, Associate Professor of Entrepreneurship, Darden Graduate School of Business, University of Virginia, US
Contents: Foreword by Lester Lave Preface Introduction Part I: The Empirical Journey - Entrepreneurial Expertise 1. What I Set Out to Study and Why 2. What I Found and How 3. Interpreting What I Found Part II: The Theoretical Journey - Effectuation 4. Understanding Effectuation: Problem Space and Solution Principles 5. Understanding Effectuation: Dynamics of the Effectual Process 6. Relating Effectuation to Performance Part III: Waypoint 7. Entrepreneurship as a Science of the Artificial 8. Competitive Advantages and Entrepreneurial Opportunities 9. Philosophy and Methodology of Effectual Economics 10. Markets in Human Hope Part IV: The Way Ahead 11. Teaching Effectuation 12. Research Works-in-Progress 13. New Research Ventures References Index