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Two Types of Ergative Languages and Their Features1399Skickas inom 10-15 vardagar.
Gratis frakt inom Sverige över 159 kr för privatpersoner.Building upon theoretical innovations and extensive empirical findings, this book explains variation in the syntactic behavior of ergative arguments across languages. It offers a new analysis of ergativity by recognizing two distinct types, PP-ergative- and DP-ergative-languages. Each type is characterized by a set of correlated features which result in structural consistency.
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-Polinsky provides a new and systematic approach to describing ergative languages that offers attractively simple categories, clearly defined and empirically testable conditions, and data from a set of relevant languages to back up the suggestions made. The dichotomy between PP-ergative and DP-ergative languages proposed is essentially theory-neutral and makes a number of interesting observations awaiting further testing. As such, this monograph will be of interest to anyone working on ergative languages, particularly on syntactical ergativity, and to typologists in general. Certain parts (esp. Chapter 8) may also be of interest to historical linguists. The analytical methods used and proposals made concerning specific languages may further be relevant for linguists working in transformational syntax or on Polynesian and Caucasian languages.---Linguist List
Maria Polinsky is Professor of Linguistics at the University of Maryland, College Park. She investigates the syntax of natural languages, with a particular emphasis on language universals and the range of variation in sentence structure. She has produced detailed syntactic analyses of a number of lesser-studied languages and has a long-standing interest in the ways different grammatical models can be used to analyze syntactic phenomena.
Preface Abbreviations Part I: Two types of ergatives 1 Introduction 1.1 Setting the stage 1.2 Syntactic ergativity 1.2.1 The phenomenon 1.2.2 The range of the phenomenon 1.2.3 The relevance of syntactic ergativity 1.3. The importance of starting small 1.3.1 Syntactic ergativity broadly defined 1.3.2 Not all A-bar movement phenomena are created equal 1.3.3 Some methodological odds and ends Appendix: Compensatory strategies under syntactic ergativity 2 Proposal 2.1 Crucial empirical observations 2.1.1 Diachronic pathways to ergativity 2.1.2 Oblique subjects 2.2 The proposal: Two classes of ergative languages 2.3 From PP specifier to syntactic ergativity 2.3.1 The relationship between the verbal functional head and ergative P 2.3.2 Ergative P and P-stranding 2.3.3 Ergative P and pied-piping 2.3.4 From a PP subject to syntactic ergativity 2.4 Basic clausal structures in the two types of ergative languages 2.4.1 PP-ergative and DP-ergative languages: transitive clauses 2.4.2 PP-ergative and DP-ergative languages: unergative clauses 2.4.3 PP specifiers everywhere? Preventing overgeneration 2.4.4 Compatibility between the ergative and the passive 2.5 Summary 3 Prepositional phrases: Establishing the diagnostics 3.1 PPs have distinct extraction and subextraction properties 3.2 Restrictions on PPs as pivots of clefts 3.3 PPs have resumptive proforms and may have special modifiers 3.4 PPs are less accessible to agreement probes than DPs are 3.5 PPs and binding 3.6 PPs and A-movement 3.7 PPs and control 3.8 Summary 4 Ergative as a PP: Take One 4.1 Ergative expressions can be PPs 4.2 Subextraction out of the ergative expression 4.3 Ergative cannot extract leaving a gap 4.4 Ergative and agreement 4.5 Ergative and depictives 4.6 Ergative and quantifier float 4.7 Taking stock 4.7.1 Silent P head 4.7.2 Overt P head 4.7.3 The nature of the operator 5 Ergative as a PP: Take Two 5.1 Binding: Reflexives and reciprocals 5.2 Raising 5.2.1 No true raising 5.2.2 Ergative is not preserved under raising-at least in Tongan 5.3 control 5.3 Summary 6 Cross-linguistic landscape: Correlates of PP-ergativity 6.1. Word order correlates 6.2 Expletive subjects 6.3 Non-canonical (quirky) subjects 7 The other ergative: A true DP 7.1 Extraction of the ergative with a gap 7.2 Subextraction from the ergative and the absolutive 7.3 Agreement 7.4 Binding 7.5 Control and raising 7.6 Word order 7.7 Summary 8 The relationship between the PP-ergative type and the DP-ergative type: Phylogeny and ontogeny 8.1 Diachronic relationship between the PP-ergative type and the DP-ergative type 8.2 Caught in transition: Niuean 8.3 Caught in transition: Adyghe 8.4 PP-ergatives and DP-ergatives in language acquisition 9 Alternative accounts of variation across ergative languages 9.1 Comp-trace vs. P-trace 9.2 Criterial freezing 9.3 Phase boundaries and high/low absolutive languages 9.4 Non-syntactic explanations for variation across ergative languages 9.5 Summary Part II: Paradigm languages 10 A paradigm PP-Ergative language: Tongan 10.1 Tongan basics 10.1.1 General remarks 10.1.2 Predicates 10.1.3 Case marking 10.1.4 Word order: Preliminary remarks 10.1.5 Questions 10.2 Subject and possessive marking: Clitics 10.2.1 Subject clitics 10.2.1.1 Basic facts about clitics 10.2.1.2 Accounting for Tongan clitics 10.2.1.3 Clitic doubling 10.2.2 Possessive clitics and possessive markers 10.3 Deriving Tongan clause structure 10.3.1 Word order: Deriving V1 10.3.2 Word order: The right periphery 10.3.2.1 The definitive accent 10.3.2.2 VOS is not due to scrambling 10.3.2.3 VOS as rightward topicalization 10.3.3 Basic clause structures 10.3.3.1 Intransitives: Unaccusatives 10.3.3.2 Intransitives: Unergatives 10.3.3.3 Transitive clauses 10.3.4 Tongan ergativity and split ergativity 10.4 A-bar movement 10.4.1 Relative clauses 10.4.2 Wh-questions 10.4.3 Focus: Exceptive constructions 10.4.4 Ko-Topi