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- 12 Line drawings, black and white; 9 Halftones, black and white; 9 Tables, black and white; 21 Illus
- 236 x 160 x 23 mm
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Twilight of Democracy
Brave New Work
Yuval Noah HarariHäftad
Democracy and Money
Lessons for Today from Athens in Classical Times1489Skickas inom 5-8 vardagar.
Fri frakt inom Sverige för privatpersoner.The authors of this book argue that post-war fiscal and monetary policies in the U.S. are prone to more frequent and more destabilizing domestic and international financial crises. So, in the aftermath of the one that erupted in 2008, they propose that now we are sleepwalking into another, which under the prevailing institutional circumstances could develop into a worldwide financial Armageddon. Thinking ahead of such a calamity, this book presents for the first time a model of democratic governance with privately produced money based on the case of Athens in Classical times, and explains why, if it is conceived as a benchmark for reference and adaptation, it may provide an effective way out from the dreadful predicament that state managed fiat money holds for the stability of Western-type democracies and the international financial system. As the U.S. today, Athens at that time reached the apex of its military, economic, political, cultural, and scientific influence in the world. But Athens triumphed through different approaches to democracy and fundamentally different fiscal and monetary policies than the U.S. Thus the readers will have the opportunity to learn about these differences and appreciate the potential they offer for confronting the challenges contemporary democracies face under the leadership of the U.S. The book will find audiences among academics, university students, and researchers across a wide range of fields and subfields, as well as legislators, fiscal and monetary policy makers, and economic and financial consultants.
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George C. Bitros is Professor of Political Economy, Emeritus, Athens University of Economics and Business. Emmanouil M.L. Economou is Adjunct Lecturer at the Department of Economics, University of Thessaly. Nicholas C. Kyriazis is Professor at the Department of Economics, University of Thessaly.
List of Exhibits List of Figures List of Tables Preface Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Deficits and debts in contemporary democracies 1.2 Complacency and acquiescence of central banks 1.3 Conclusion Chapter 2: Money-related institutions in classical Athens 2.1 Public governance and Archai in charge of the currency 2.1.1 Making the best out of the Laurion mines 2.1.2 Minting of coins and maintaining their integrity 2.2 Financial intermediation in the private sector 2.2.1 Trapezai (banks) 2.2.2 Argyramoiboi or Kollybistai (moneychangers) 2.2.3 Enechirodanistai (pawnbrokers) 2.3 Summary Chapter 3: The system and the tenets of public finance 3.1 A brief overview of the fiscal administration 3.1.1 Setup of the state's financial services 3.1.2 Sources and uses of public funds 3.1.3 Democratic control of financial magistrates 3.1.4 Balancing the budget through war and peace 3.2 Public budget and lenders of last resort 3.3 Summary Chapter 4: Main currency-related policies 4.1. Economics of minting in classical times 4.1.1. Taxing through reminting 4.2. Regulatory frameworks of coinage 4.2.1 Coinage Decree (449 BC) 4.2.2 The Decree of Kallias (434/3 BC) 4.2.3 Law of Nicophon (375/4 BC) 4.2.4 Currency issues in ancient Greek federations 4.3. Summary Chapter 5: Structure and evolution of the economy 5.1 The state sector 5.1.1 Governance 22.214.171.124 Civil service 126.96.36.199 Defense and power posture 188.8.131.52 Courts and law enforcement 184.108.40.206 Financial, regulatory and other services 5.1.2 Infrastructural and cultural facilities 5.1.3 Social welfare 5.2 The private sector 5.2.1 Household production for own-use and sale 5.2.2 Trade oriented production of goods and services 220.127.116.11 Mining 18.104.22.168 Handicraft and manufacturing 22.214.171.124 Shipping 126.96.36.199 Money and banking 188.8.131.52 Construction 184.108.40.206 Paideia 220.127.116.11 Health care 18.104.22.168 Other public services 5.2.3 Distribution of goods and services 5.2.4 Export-import trade 5.3 Summary Chapter 6: Money in a market economy without a central bank 6.1 Demand and supply of currency and bullion 6.2 Demand and supply of primary deposits by banks 6.3 Demand and supply of bank credit 6.4 Equilibrium in the money market 6.5 Summary Chapter 7: An assessment of comparative performance 7.1 Price stability 7.1.1 Inflation in part and in general 7.1.2 Relative prices and economic flexibility 7.2 Unemployment 7.3 Economic growth 7.4 The interest rate 7.4.1 Real interest rates in the U.S and ancient Athens 7.4.2 Public goods and the rate of interest 7.5 The two currencies from an international perspective 7.5.1 The U.S. dollar in the postwar period 7.5.2 The Attic drachma in classical times 7.6 Summary Chapter 8: Alternatives to established central banking 8.1 Central bank as the fourth power of the state 8.2 Currency and credit based on free banking 8.3 Attic drachma: Private currency with state standards 8.4 On the evolving prospects of electronic money 8.5 Leads for money from classical Athens 8.5.1 Central banking with a non-convertible paper currency 8.5.2 Free banking with commodity-based currencies: The Athenian vs. the Scottish model 8.5.3 Free banking with digital currencies 8.6 Concluding assessments 8.7 Appendix: On the inversion of Gresham's law in classical Athens Chapter 9: Why back and how to direct democracy 9.1 Core weaknesses of contemporary democracy 9.1.1 The self-interest of politicians 9.1.2 Bureaucracy 9.1.3 Uncoordinated administrative polycentrism 9.1.4 Rent-seeking 9.1.5 Regulatory and state capture 9.2 Sources of inherent weaknesses in contemporary democracy 9.2.1 Impossibility of representation in groups 9.2.2 Asymmetry of information 9.2.3 The deleterious role of political parties 9.2.4 Deficit spending 9.3 The superior advantages of direct democracy 9.3.1 No