The Perception of Visual Information (inbunden)
Inbunden (Hardback)
Antal sidor
2nd ed. 1997
Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Wells, Peter N.T.
153 schwarz-weiße Zeichnungen 287 schwarz-weiße Abbildungen, 134 schwarz-weiße Fotos 6 schwarz-wei
6 Tables, black and white; XVIII, 409 p.
242 x 164 x 24 mm
917 g
Antal komponenter
1 Hardback
The Perception of Visual Information (inbunden)

The Perception of Visual Information

Inbunden Engelska, 1997-06-01
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The presentation and interpretation of visual information is essential to almost every activity in human life and most endeavors of modern technology. This book examines the current status of what is known (and not known) about human vision, how human observers interpret visual data, and how to present such data to facilitate their interpretation and use. Written by experts who are able to cross disciplinary boundaries, the book provides an educational pathway through several models of human vision; describes how the visual response is analyzed and quantified; presents current theories of how the human visual response is interpreted; discusses the cognitive responses of human observers; and examines such applications as space exploration, manufacturing, surveillance, earth and air sciences, and medicine. The book is intended for everyone with an undergraduate-level background in science or engineering with an interest in visual science. This second edition has been brought up to date throughout and contains a new chapter on "Virtual reality and augmented reality in medicine."
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1 Physiological Optics.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Optical Anatomy of the Eye.- 1.3 Aberrations of the Eye.- 1.3.1 Spherical Aberration.- 1.3.2 Chromatic Aberration.- 1.3.3 Oblique Astigmatism and Coma.- 1.3.4 Curvature of Field.- 1.4 The Visual Pathways.- 1.4.1 Photoreceptors.- 1.4.2 Bipolar, Ganglion, Horizontal, and Amacrine Cells.- 1.4.3 Lateral Geniculate Nucleus.- 1.4.4 Primary Visual Cortex.- 1.5 Mechanisms of Viewing.- 1.6 ColorVision.- 1.7 Physical Performance of the Visual System.- 1.7.1 Spectral Sensitivity.- 1.7.2 Incremental Brightness Sensitivity.- 1.7.3 Spatial Response.- 1.7.4 Temporal Response.- 1.7.5 Dynamic Range.- 1.8 Information Transfer Rates.- 1.9 References.- 2 Detection of Vision Information.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Early Theories of Vision.- 2.2.1 The Evil Eye.- 2.3 Simple Experiments.- 2.3.1 Inverted Image on the Retina.- 2.3.2 Blind Spot.- 2.3.3 Horizontal and Vertical Detectors.- 2.3.4 Mach Bands.- 2.3.5 The Craik, Cornsweet, O'Brien Illusion.- 2.3.6 Herman Hering Grid.- 2.3.7 The Moon Illusion.- 2.4 Adaptation and After Images.- 2.4.1 Stimulus and Sensation.- 2.5 Three-Dimensional Vision.- 2.6 Stereoscopic Viewing.- 2.7 Cross-Eyed Technique of Three-Dimensional Viewing.- 2.8 Models of the Visual System.- 2.8.1 Feature Detection.- 2.8.2 The Bottom-Up and Top-Down Models.- 2.8.3 Ideal Observer Studies.- 2.8.4 Computational Models.- 2.8.5 Preattentive and Attentive Processing Textons.- 2.9 References.- 3 Quantification of Visual Capability.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Visual Acuity.- 3.3 Contrast Sensitivity.- 3.4 Visual Physiology.- 3.5 Visual Filtering.- 3.5.1 Sine-Wave Gratings.- 3.5.2 Contrast Sensitivity Function.- 3.5.3 Channel Filter Images.- 3.6 Causes of Vision Loss.- 3.7 Detection and Identification of Visual Signals.- 3.7.1 Measuring Contrast Sensitivity.- 3.7.2 Sine-Wave Grating and Low Contrast Letter Charts.- 3.7.3 Test Modalities for Contrast Sensitivity.- 3.7.4 Interpreting Contrast Sensitivity: EyeView.- 3.7.5 Glare Testing.- 3.7.6 Applications to Imaging.- 3.8 Conclusions.- 3.9 References.- 4 A Multiscale Geometric Model of Human Vision.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Scale-Space.- 4.3 Scaled Differential Operators.- 4.4 Image Structure.- 4.5 Description of the Early Vision System.- 4.6 Differential Invariants.- 4.7 Applications.- 4.8 Discussion.- 4.9 References.- 5 Human Response to Visual Stimuli.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Measuring Human Responses.- 5.2.1 Low Intensity Signals.- 5.2.2 Intense Stimuli.- 5.3 Complex Stimuli.- 5.3.1 Selective Visual Attention.- 5.3.2 Visual Scanning.- 5.3.3 Matching Image and Observer Characteristics.- 5.3.4 Focal Attention and Observer Factors.- 5.3.5 Individual Differences.- 5.3.6 Improving diagnostic accuracy.- 5.4 References.- 6 Cognitive Interpretation of Visual Signals.- 6.1 Early Views of Cognition.- 6.2 Western Philosophical Speculations on Cognition.- 6.3 Visual Texture Discrimination.- 6.4 Illusions.- 6.4.1 Ambiguities.- 6.4.2 Distortions.- 6.4.3 Paradoxes.- 6.4.4 Fictions.- 6.4.5 Summary.- 6.5 Color Vision.- 6.6 References.- 7 Visual Data Formatting.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Brightness, Contrast, and Details.- 7.3 Texture Discrimination and Edge Detection.- 7.4 Medical Imaging and Information.- 7.5 Visual Information and Communication.- 7.6 Conclusions.- 7.7 References.- 8 Image Manipulation.- 8.1 Introduction: The Digital Image.- 8.2 Interpolation.- 8.3 Gray-Level Manipulation.- 8.4 Filtering.- 8.5 Geometric Processing and Image Co-Registration.- 8.6 Image Subtraction.- 8.7 Segmentation.- 8.8 Maximum Intensity Projection.- 8.9 Conclusion.- 8.10 References.- 9 Physical and Psychophysical Measurement of Images.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Physical Measurements of Image Quality.- 9.2.1 Image Formation.- 9.2.2 Spatial Resolution.- 9.2.3 Noise.- 9.2.4 Signal-to-Noise Ratio.- 9.3 Limitations of Physical Analysis.- 9.4 Measuring Observer Performance: Basic Principles of ROC analysis.- 9.5 General Issues Regarding the Use of ROC Methods in Medical Imaging Research.-