Plant Physiological Ecology (häftad)
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Häftad (Paperback / softback)
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Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2000
Chapman and Hall
16 Illustrations, black and white; 472 p. 16 illus.
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1 Paperback / softback
Plant Physiological Ecology (häftad)

Plant Physiological Ecology

Field methods and instrumentation

Häftad Engelska, 1990-10-01
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capable of providing at least a relative measure of stomatal aperture were first used shortly thereafter (Darwin and Pertz, 1911). The Carnegie Institution of Washington's Desert Research Laboratory in Tucson from 1905 to 1927 was the first effort by plant physiologists and ecologists to conduct team research on the water relations of desert plants. Measurements by Stocker in the North African deserts and Indonesia (Stocker, 1928, 1935) and by Lundegardh (1922) in forest understories were pioneering attempts to understand the environmental controls on photosynthesis in the field. While these early physiological ecologists were keen observers and often posed hypotheses still relevant today they were strongly limited by the methods and technologies available to them. Their measurements provided only rough approximations of the actual plant responses. The available laboratory equip ment was either unsuited or much more difficult to operate under field than laboratory conditions. Laboratory physiologists distrusted the results and ecologists were largely not persuaded of its relevance. Consequently, it was not until the 1950s and 1960s that physiological ecology began its current resurgence. While the reasons for this are complicated, the development and application of more sophisticated instruments such as the infrared gas analyzer played a major role. In addition, the development of micrometeorology led to new methods of characterizing the plant environments.
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The combination of methods descriptions, comparative evaluations, and extensive citations makes this volume a bookshelf must for any scientist studying plant responses to the environment. It also has a wealth of good information for students - Plant Sciences Bulletin; This book provides a guide to the appropriate methodology for field measurements of the environment and of the physiological and morphological responses of plants to their environment, relevant to the study of physiological ecology ... This book provides a valuable reference work for researchers and those involved in the pure and applied plant sciences - Field Crop Abstracts; ...this is one of the best books on plant physiology ecology it is one of the best I have had the honor to review...One of the nicest the abundance of clear, informative illustrations..It is clearly a book worth having - BioScience; ...Every practicing physiological ecologist should have a copy... - Quarterly Review of Biology; ...Altogether this book contains a lot of valuable information which is helpful not only for someone being new in the field but also for researchers already familiar with a certain technique. The book is worth its price and can be recommended for a wide range of plant physiologists - Journal of Plant Physiology

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1 Principles of instrumentation for physiological ecology.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Measurement and measurement errors.- 1.3 Instrument organization.- 1.4 Instrument initiation.- 1.5 Postscript.- 2 Field data acquisition.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Analog recorders.- 2.3 Digital recorders.- 2.4 Integrators.- 2.5 Sampling considerations.- 3 Water in the environment.- 3.1 Soil moisture.- 3.2 Atmospheric moisture.- 3.3 Moisture flux.- 4 Measurement of wind speed near vegetation.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Flow in wind tunnels, growth cabinets and ducts.- 4.3 Weather stations and field survey.- 4.4 Wind profiles above vegetation.- 4.5 Boundary layer resistance.- 4.6 Calibration.- 4.7 Aerodynamic influence by masts.- 4.8 Visualization.- 4.9 Pressure measurements.- 4.10 Some applications.- 5 Soil nutrient availability.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Difficulties in measuring nutrient availability.- 5.3 Nitrogen availability.- 5.4 Phosphorus availability.- 5.5 Sulfur availability.- 5.6 Availability of essential cations.- 5.7 Micronutrient availability.- 5.8 Soil classification.- 5.9 Bioassay of nutrient availability.- 5.10 Soil acidity.- 5.11 Soil salinity.- 5.12 Soil redox potential.- 5.13 Comments on sampling.- 5.14 Index units.- 6 Radiation and light measurements.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Definitions and units.- 6.3 Energy versus photons as a measure of PAR.- 6.4 Radiation sensors: general characteristics.- 6.5 Determination of the diffuse and direct components of radiation.- 6.6 Calibration of radiation sensors.- 6.7 Sampling considerations.- 6.8 Photographic estimations of light climate.- 6.9 Spectral radiometry.- 7 Temperature and energy budgets.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Energy budget approach.- 7.3 Variations in air and leaf temperatures with height.- 7.4 Temperature and its measurement.- 7.5 Orientation and its measurement.- 7.6 Calculation of incident solar radiation on different surfaces.- 7.7 Leaf absorptance and its measurement.- 7.8 Boundary layer considerations.- 8 Measurement of transpiration and leaf conductance.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Leaf transpiration rate.- 8.3 Leaf conductance to water vapor.- 8.4 Instrumentation for transpiration measurements.- 8.5 Calibration of water vapor sensors.- 8.6 Systems for measuring transpiration and leaf conductance.- 8.7 Whole-plant measurements of transpiration.- 9 Plant water status, hydraulic resistance and capacitance.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Water potential and its components.- 9.3 Water content.- 9.4 Hydraulic resistance and capacitance.- 9.5 Conclusion.- 10 Approaches to studying nutrient uptake, use and loss in plants.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Nutrient uptake.- 10.3 Nutrient use and nutrient status.- 10.4 Chemical analysis.- 10.5 Nutrient loss.- 11 Photosynthesis: principles and field techniques.- 11.1 The system concept.- 11.2 Principles of photosynthesis measurement.- 11.3 Components of gas-exchange systems.- 11.4 Real photosynthesis systems.- 11.5 Matching instrument to objective.- 11.6 Calibrating photosynthesis systems.- 11.7 Calculating gas-exchange parameters.- 11.8 List of symbols.- 12 Crassulacean acid metabolism.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 Measurement of succulence.- 12.3 Nocturnal acidification.- 12.4 Nocturnal CO2 fixation.- 12.5 Analysis of day-night and seasonal patterns of CO2 and H2O vapor exchange.- 12.6 Measurement of photosynthesis and respiration by O2 exchange.- 12.7 Water relations.- 12.8 Stress physiology.- 13 Stable isotopes.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 Natural abundances of stable isotopes of ecological interest.- 13.3 Stable isotope mass spectrometry.- 13.4 Sample preparation.- 13.5 Sample variability.- 13.6 Application of stable isotopes in ecological studies.- 14 Canopy structure.- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.2 Direct methods.- 14.3 Semidirect methods.- 14.4 Indirect methods.- 14.5 Summary.- 15 Growth, carbon allocation and cost of plant tissues.- 15.1 Introduction.- 15.2 Growth analysis.- 15.3 Fate of carbon.- 15.4 Carbon and energy costs of growth and maintenance.- 1