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- Gabbidon, Shaun L.
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- Following Cities and Creative Class; 1 Line drawings, black and white
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A Theory of African American Offending
Race, Racism, and Crime569Skickas inom 10-15 vardagar.
Fri frakt inom Sverige för privatpersoner.A little more than a century ago, the famous social scientist W.E.B. Du Bois asserted that a true understanding of African American offending must be grounded in the "real conditions" of what it means to be black living in a racial stratified society. Today and according to official statistics, African American men - about six percent of the population of the United States - account for nearly sixty percent of the robbery arrests in the United States. To the authors of this book, this and many other glaring racial disparities in offending centered on African Americans is clearly related to their unique history and to their past and present racial subordination. Inexplicably, however, no criminological theory exists that fully articulates the nuances of the African American experience and how they relate to their offending. In readable fashion for undergraduate students, the general public, and criminologists alike, this book for the first time presents the foundations for the development of an African American theory of offending.
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"Race, Racism, and Crime offers an insightful account of why black Americans more often commit violent crimes than do members of other groups, and why most black people do not. It draws heavily on the American black experience and will become the standard work on the subject." - Michael Tonry, Law, University of Minnesota "This book is a must-read for criminologists and sociologists. Although the book is written for social scientists concerned with explaining crime, it is likely to be of interest to anyone striving to understand the high amount of crime that exists in many African American communities. I look forward to using it as one of the texts in the criminology course that I teach." - Ronald Simons, Sociology, University of Georgia
James D. Unnever is a Professor of Criminology at the University of South Florida-Sarasota-Manatee. Dr. Unnever was the Recipient of the Donal A.J. MacNamara Award by the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences in 2009. The author of over 40 publications appearing in such journals as Social Forces, Criminology, Social Problems, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, and Justice Quarterly, Dr. Unnever was ranked as the fifth most innovative author in criminology from 2000-2010. His areas of expertise include race and crime, public opinion about crime-related issues including the death penalty, the testing of theories of crime, and school bullying. Shaun L. Gabbidon is Distinguished Professor of Criminal Justice in the School of Public Affairs at Penn State Harrisburg. Dr. Gabbidon has served as a fellow at Harvard University's W.E.B. Du Bois Institute for Afro-American Research, and as an adjunct faculty member in the Center for Africana Studies at the University of Pennsylvania. The author of more than 100 scholarly publications including 50 peer-reviewed articles and 10 books, his most recent books include Race, Ethnicity, Crime and Justice: An International Dilemma and Criminological Perspectives on Race and Crime (2nd edition). Dr. Gabbidon currently serves as the editor of the new SAGE journal, Race and Justice: An International Journal. The recipient of numerous awards, Dr. Gabbidon was most recently awarded the 2009 W.E.B. Du Bois Award from the Western Society of Criminology for his outstanding contributions in the area of race, ethnicity, and justice.
Preface Acknowledgements 1. Introduction African Americans and the Criminal Justice System The Uniqueness of Being Black in America: The need for a Black Criminology The African American Heritage A Black Criminology General Criminological Theories on African American Offending Social Disorganization Theory Hirschi's Social Control Theory Gottfredson and Hirschi's General Theory of Crime Strain Theories Merton's Strain Theory Agnew's General Strain Theory Aker's Social Learning Theory Afrocentricity Conclusion 2. An African American Worldview The Basic Premise of our African American Theory of Offending The Racial Divide Evidence of a General Racial Divide Hurricane Katrina Does race matter? Success of the Civil Rights Movement Reparations and Race Relations The Racial Divide in Perceptions of the Criminal Justice System The Racial Divide in Support for the Death Penalty The Racial Divide in Perceptions of Injustice in the Criminal Justice System The Racial Divide in Support for the "War on Drugs" A Worldview that Is Shared Among All African Americans Why African Americans Share this Perception of the Criminal Justice System The Election of Barack Obama Perceived Racial Discrimination Would Employers Rather Hire Whites than African Americans? Perceived Racial Discrimination Conclusions 3. Perceptions of Criminal Justice Injustices and African American Offending Perceptions of Criminal Justice Injustices Why People Obey the Law Procedural Justice Legal Socialization Perceptions of Criminal Justice Injustices and Defiance Shame, Anger, and Defiance Hirschi's Control Theory and the Bond of Belief Variations in African American Offending Variations in the Degree to which African Americans Perceive Criminal Justice Injustices Variations in Place Variations in Defiance Variations by Gender 4. Racial Discrimination, Negative Stereotypes, Stereotype Threats, and African American Offending Racial Discrimination and the General Well-Being of African Americans Racial Discrimination and African American Offending Racial Discrimination and Weak School Bonds Stereotypes of African Americans Prevailing Racial Stereotypes Stereotypes and Offending Stereotype Threat and Weak Social Bonds Stereotype Threats Stereotype Threat, Weak Bonds, and African American Offending Pejorative Stereotypes and Offending Summary Gender and Crime The Significance of Place Conclusions 5. Racial Socialization and African American Offending Introduction The Different Dimensions of Racial Socialization Cultural Socialization Preparation for Racial Bias Promotion of Mistrust Egalitarian Values Racial Socialization and Racial Identity Racial Identity and Offending Racial Socialization and Gender Racial Socialization and Social Bonds Racial Socialization and the Black Church Racial Socialization, Racial Discrimination, Hostility, Depression, and Offending Coping with Racism Our Theory on Racial Socialization and Offending Racial Socialization and Weak Bonds Gender and African American Offending Drugs, Gender, and Crime Racial Socialization, Place, and Offending Why Place Matters 6. A Theoretical Model of African American Offending The Unique Worldview of African Americans African American Offending and Criminal Justice Injustices Criminal Justice Injustices and Weakening the Restraints of the Rule of Law African American Offending and Racial Discrimination Negative Stereotypes Individual Offending Variations in Experiences with Racial Injustices Variations in Racial Socialization Our Theoretical Model of African American Offending Gender and African American Offending Place Matters Differences among African Americans Ethnicity and Immigration Status Colorism Conclusion Epilogue: Environ