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A History of Modern Psychology in Context
Incorporating Social, Political, and Economic Factors into the Story
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"Pickren and Rutherford want to provide a history of psychology that describes how culture, race, ethnicity, and gender have influenced psychology's development within social, political, and economic contexts. They intend to provide a postmodern, social constructionist treatment of psychology's history that is accessible to undergraduate students. In a number of other ways Pickren and Rutherford do a good job of providing an original description of the field's social and historical contexts. They do a credible job of providing an alternative version of our discipline's history that students and professors ready for a postmodern textbook will find novel and instructive." ( PsycCRITIQUES , September 15, 2010)
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Wade E. Pickren, PhD, is the Historian of the American Psychological Association. For eight years, Wade was both APA Historian and Director of Archives. He is currently on the psychology faculty at Ryerson University in Toronto and continues to serve as APA Historian. Alexandra Rutherford, PhD, is Associate Professor of psychology in the History and Theory of Psychology Graduate Program at York University. She is the official historian of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues and the Heritage Chair of the Society for the Psychology of Women.
Preface and Acknowledgments . Introduction . Why History? Why History of Psychology? Reflexivity . Social Constructionism . Indigenization . Other Aspects of Our Story . Organizational Overview . Bibliographic Essay . CHAPTER 1 ORIGINS OF A SCIENCE OF MIND . Introduction . Philosophy: Descartes and Locke as Exemplars . Rene Descartes (1596-1650) . John Locke (1632-1704) . The Legacy of Descartes and Locke for Psychology . Physiology and Medicine: The Search for Material Explanations of Human Nature . Medicine and Naturalistic Explanation . Research in the Physiology of the Nervous System . The Mechanization of the Brain . Sidebar 1.1 Focus on Christine Ladd-Franklin . Darwin, Natural Selection, and the Laws of Nature . Journey to the Galapagos . Continuity: Humans and Natural Law . Summary . Bibliographic Essay . CHAPTER 2 EVERYDAY LIFE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PRACTICES . Introduction . New Technologies . Technologies of Devotion and Piety . Technologies of Self-Perception and Self-Expression . Psychological Consequences of Commercial Society . Changes in Family Life . Reading the Signs of the Body in the Era of Industrial Capitalism . The First Industrial Revolution . Reading the Signs of the Body . Physiognomy . Phrenology . Sidebar 2.1 Focus on the Fowler Brothers . Summary . Bibliographic Essay . CHAPTER 3 SUBJECT MATTER, METHODS, AND THE MAKING OF A NEW SCIENCE . Introduction . Can Psychology Be a Science? Kant's Challenge . Psychophysics and the Possibility of a New Science . The German Intellectual Tradition . Wilhelm Wundt and the New Psychology . Psychology in Britain and France . The New Psychology in America . William James and a Science of Psychology . The Principles of Psychology . The Demise of Introspection in American Psychology . Thorndike, the Animal Mind, and Animal Behavior . Pavlov, Animal Learning, and the Environment . Perry and Changing Beliefs About the Nature of Consciousness . Watson and the Rise of Behaviorism . Behaviorism: Influential but Contested . Sidebar 3.1 Focus on Mary Whiton Calkins . Behaviorism and American Life . Summary . Bibliographic Essay . CHAPTER 4 FROM PERIPHERY TO CENTER: CREATING AN AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGY . Introduction . American Mental and Moral Philosophy . Forging a Psychological Sensibility: From Religion to Psychical Research . Religion and Revival . Mesmerism and Religion . Spiritualism . New Thought . Psychical Phenomena . Boundary Work and the New Psychology: Establishing the Center and Marking the Periphery . American Psychologists: Organization and Application . Organizing for Science . Making Psychology Useful . Engaging the Public . Education: The Pay Vein That Supports the Mine . Psychologists in Industry . Sidebar 4.1 Focus on Lillian Moller Gilbreth . Summary . Bibliographic Essay . CHAPTER 5 THE PRACTICE OF PSYCHOLOGY AT THE INTERFACE WITH MEDICINE. Introduction . Enlightenment and Madness . From Mesmerism to Hypnosis . Charcot: The Napoleon of the Neuroses . Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) . Sidebar 5.1 Focus on Bertha Pappenheim . Freud's Impact on Psychology as a Mental Health Profession . Therapeutic Nihilism . Psychologists, Psychoanalysis, and Mental Health in America . Boundaries Between Psychology and Medicine . Mental Testing . Psychologists and the Question of Boundaries with Psychoanalysis . Psychoanalysis and Psychosomatic Medicine Psychoanalysis Outside Europe and North America . Psychologists, Psychoanalysis, and Mental Health in India . Psychoanalysis in Argentina . Summary . Bibliographic Essay . CHAPTER 6 PSYCHOLOGISTS AS TESTERS: APPLYING PSYCHOLOGY, ORDERING SOCIETY . Introduction . The Roots of Mental Testing in America . Mental Tests Go to the Fair. Lightner Witmer and the Prehistory of Clinical Psychology . Sorting the Sexes . Sidebar 6.1 Focus on Leta Stetter Hollingworth . The Demise of Mental Tests and the Rise of the IQ . Lewi