Forensic Botany (häftad)
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John Wiley & Sons Inc
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Forensic Botany (häftad)

Forensic Botany

A Practical Guide

Häftad Engelska, 2012-06-01
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Forensic Botany: A Practical Guide is an accessible introduction to the way in which botanical evidence is identified, collected and analysed in criminal cases. Increasingly this form of evidence is becoming more important in forensic investigation and yet there are few trained botanists able to assist in such cases. This book is intended to show how useful simple collection methods and standard plant analysis can be in the course of such investigations and is written in a clear and accessible manner to enhance understanding of the subject for the non-specialist. Clearly structured throughout, this book combines well known collection techniques in a field oriented format that can be used for casework. Collection of evidence differs from formal plant collection in that most professional plant collectors are gathering entire plants or significant portions of a plant for permanent storage and reference. Evidence frequently consists of fragments, sometimes exceedingly tiny. Exemplars (examples of reference plants) are collections of plants made in the manner a botanist would collect them. These collections are necessary to link or exclude evidence to or from a scene. Various methods that allow easy collection, transportation, and preservation of evidence are detailed throughout the book. This book is written for those who have no formal background working with plants. It can be used as a practical guide for students taking forensic science courses, law enforcement training, legal courses, and as a template for plant collection at any scene where plants occur and where rules or laws are involved. Veterinarians, various environmental agencies, anthropologists, and archeologists are examples of disciplines that are more recently in need of plant evidence. Veterinarians are becoming more active in pursuing cases of animals that have been abused or are victims of illegal killing. Anthropologists and archeologists are often called to help with body recovery in outdoor environments. Environmental agencies are increasingly forced to adopt rules for resource protection, are in need of a guide for procedures for plant evidence collection and application. The format of the book is designed to present the reader with all the information needed to conduct a botanical analysis of a crime scene; to highlight the forensic significance of the botanical evidence that may be present; how to collect that evidence in the correct manner and preserve and store that evidence appropriately- also shows how to conduct a laboratory analysis of the plants.
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This book entitled Forensic Botany: A Practical Guide is an excellent guide and teaching tool for biological evidence training, a resource for scientists, law enforcement and attorneys alike, and review material before trial. Forensic guidelines for plant material are limited and training is specialized; therefore, this truly is an excellent, readable scientific guide for the forensic community. (Journal of Forensic Sciences, 1 July 2013)

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David Hall has spent forty years working on forensic botany cases and over twenty years teaching short courses and providing seminars and lectures to the many law enforcement and environmental agencies that could use plant evidence. Experience has shown that the great majority of overlooked evidence could have been easily collected, quickly analyzed, and proved helpful. The coverage of forensic botany in this book is intended to be as accessible as possible and assumes little or no botanical background. It will guide any person with a criminal or civil legal problem to the expertise needed. Collection of evidence is addressed as a step by step guide suitable for field situations.


List of contributors ix Series Foreword xi Prologue: the begining xiii 1 Introduction to forensic botany 1 David W. Hall, Ph.D. Botanical evidence in legal investigations 1 Legal plant definition 2 Botanical evidence in legal investigations 3 Alibis 5 Timing 5 Gravesite growth 9 Stomach contents 11 Summary 11 2 Plants as evidence 12 David W. Hall, Ph.D. Types of plants 12 Nonplant groups traditionally studied by botanists 22 Plant habitats and associations 25 Plant characteristics/plant morphology 26 Basic plant characteristics for the forensic investigator 28 Habit 28 Plant dispersal 41 3 Evidence collection and analysis 45 David W. Hall, Ph.D. and Jason H. Byrd, Ph.D. Initial crime scene notation 55 Where to search for evidence 56 Storage 61 Documentation of botanical evidence 61 How to have botanical evidence analysed 62 Where to find a botanist 63 Types of cases 63 Evidence analysis 63 Laboratory report 65 Transportation of botanical evidence 66 Evidence retention and disposition 66 Step-wise method for the collection of botanical evidence 68 Appendix 3.1 70 Crime scene data 70 Habitat documentation 70 Scene location 70 Collection information needed for each botanical sample 70 Appendix 3.2 72 Botany field data sheet 72 Appendix 3.3 76 Botany laboratory examination data format 76 Appendix 3.4 78 Evidence log 78 4 Expert evidence 79 Bernard A. Raum JD, MFS The common law 79 The United States experience 80 The decision in Frye v. United States 81 The codified federal rules of evidence 82 The decision in Daubert v. Merrill Dow25 85 The scientific method 86 The pure opinion rule 87 The United Kingdom experience 88 The criminal procedure rules 2010, s.33 90 The law commission consultation paper no. 190 92 5 Use and guidelines for plant DNA analyses in forensics 93 Matthew A. Gitzendanner, Ph.D. Introduction 93 Types of samples and collection for DNA analyses 94 Uses of genetic data 95 Genotyping methods 98 Finding a laboratory for analysis 102 Case studies 102 Conclusions 104 References 104 6 A primer on forensic microscopy 107 Christopher R. Hardy, Ph.D. Microscopes and microscopic botanical structures relevant to forensic botany 107 The importance of reference collections in microscopic analysis 115 Preparation and documentation of specimen evidence for microscopic examination 116 References 118 7 Plant anatomy 119 David W. Hall, Ph.D. and William Stern, Ph.D. The lindbergh case 121 Further reading 126 8 Palynology, pollen, and spores, partners in crime: what, why, and how 127 Anna Sandiford, Ph.D. Terminology 127 What are pollen and spores? 127 Where are they found and how do they travel? 129 What does pollen look like? 130 The use of pollen for non-forensic work 132 The use of pollen in the forensic setting 132 When should pollen samples be collected? 134 How to collect and store pollen samples 134 How many samples to collect? 138 Who can collect pollen samples and where can an analyst be found? 139 Costs and turnaround times 140 Case examples 140 Summary 142 References 143 9 Algae in forensic investigations 145 Christopher R. Hardy, Ph.D. and John R. Wallace, Ph.D. Finding an algal botanist and identifying algae 145 Algal diversity 146 Application of algal evidence in forensic investigations 154 Collection and processing of algal evidence in forensic investigations 165 Acknowledgements 172 References 172 10 Case Studies in forensic botany 174 David W. Hall, Ph.D. Placing people or objects at scenes 174 Determining time of death 181 Index 189