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- John Wiley & Sons Inc
- black & white illustrations, black & white tables, figures, graphs
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Brave New Work
Hazard Testing and Assessment Methods1169Skickas inom 7-10 vardagar.
Fri frakt inom Sverige för privatpersoner.This book describes methodology and applications for endocrine disrupter toxicity testing, an issue of considerable urgency, because of international regulatory authorities currently considering such testing schemes. The coverage examines major animal groups for sensitivity to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), identifying endpoints and procedures for testing guidelines. Three EDC screening methods (two using fish and one using amphibians) are examined in detail for their efficacy and applicability. Edited by, and with contributions from, a leading participant in regulatory efforts, the book outlines methods that combine sensitivity, efficiency, statistical power, acceptable cost, and minimum ethical concern.
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PETER MATTHIESSEN, PhD, is an aquatic ecotoxicologist who works as an independent consultant. Specializing in the study of endocrine disrupters, he has conducted extensive research into how sewage effluents cause feminization in wild male fish as well as how tributyltin-based antifoulants cause masculinization in wild female mollusks. Professor Matthiessen is a member of the UK Advisory Committee on Pesticides and Co-chair of the OECD Validation Management Group for Ecotoxicity Tests. He has contributed to the development of standardized ecotoxicity assays with sensitivity for endocrine disrupters as well as written guidance for the interpretation of the resulting data.
Preface ix Contributors xi 1 Ecotoxicity Test Methods for Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: An Introduction 1 Peter Matthiessen 1.1 Background 1 1.2 Regulatory Concerns 2 1.3 Invertebrates 2 1.4 Vertebrates 3 1.5 Testing Schemes for EDCs 5 Reference 6 2 Endocrine Disruption inWildlife: Background, Effects, and Implications 7 Dick Vethaak and Juliette Legler 2.1 Background to Endocrine Disruption 8 2.2 Effects of EDCs on Wildlife 19 2.3 Weight of Evidence and Ecological Significance of ED Effects 32 2.4 Implications for Effect Assessment and Toxicity Testing 36 2.5 Need for More Field Studies and an Integrated Approach 38 2.6 Concluding Points 39 References 40 3 The Regulatory Need for Tests to Detect EDCs and Assess Their Hazards toWildlife 59 Hans-Christian Stolzenberg, Tobias Frische, Vicki L. Dellarco, Gary Timm, Anne Gourmelon, Taisen Iguchi, Flemming Ingerslev, and Mike Roberts 3.1 Emerging Concerns and Policy Responses: Focusing on EDCs as a Large Pseudo-Uniform Group of Substances 60 3.2 General Approaches in Substance-Related Regulatory Frameworks (EU) 80 3.3 How to Make EDC Definitions Operational for Substance-Related Regulatory Work 87 3.4 Future Perspectives 91 3.5 Conclusions 92 References 93 4 Techniques for Measuring Endocrine Disruption in Insects 100 Lennart Weltje 4.1 Introduction 100 4.2 Methods 105 4.3 Discussion 108 4.4 Conclusion 110 4.5 Acknowledgments 110 References 110 5 Crustaceans 116 Magnus Breitholtz 5.1 Introduction 116 5.2 Background to Crustacean Endocrinology 118 5.3 State of the Art: What Do We Know About Endocrine Disruption in Crustaceans? 121 5.4 Available Subchronic/Chronic Standard Test Protocols 128 5.5 Complementary Tools for Identification of Endocrine Disruption 129 5.6 Summary and Conclusions 132 References 134 6 Endocrine Disruption in Molluscs: Processes and Testing 143 Patricia D. McClellan-Green 6.1 Background and Introduction 143 6.2 What Constitutes the Endocrine System in Molluscs? 145 6.3 End Points and Biomarkers of Endocrine Disruption 154 6.4 Current Test Methods Using Molluscs 164 6.5 Proposed Test Methods 167 6.6 Conclusions 171 References 172 7 Using Fish to Detect Endocrine Disrupters and Assess Their Potential Environmental Hazards 185 Peter Matthiessen 7.1 Introduction 185 7.2 International Efforts to Standardize Fish-Based Methods for Screening and Testing Endocrine-Disrupting 7.3 Fish-Based Screens Developed by OECD for Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals 189 7.4 Progress with Developing Fish Partial Life Cycle Tests for Endocrine Disrupters 194 7.5 Prospects for the Standardization of Fish Full Life Cycle and Multigeneration Tests 195 7.6 Strengths and Weaknesses of a Hazard Evaluation Strategy Based Partly on Available and Proposed Fish Screens and Tests 197 7.7 Conclusions 198 References 198 8 Screening and Testing for Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in Amphibian Models 202 Daniel B. Pickford 8.1 Introduction 202 8.2 Potential Uses of Amphibians in Endocrine Disrupter Screening and Testing Programs 203 8.3 Embryonic Development 205 8.4 Hatching 208 8.5 Larval Development 209 8.6 Higher-Tier Tests with Amphibians 224 8.7 Other and Emerging Test Methods 227 8.8 Summary and Conclusions 229 References 232 9 Endocrine Disruption and Reptiles: Using the Unique Attributes of Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination to Assess Impacts 245 Satomi Kohno and Louis J. Guillette, Jr. 9.1 Introduction 245 9.2 Approaches to Examine Effects of EDCs 252 9.3 Induction of Sex Reversal In Ovo 255 9.4 Analysis of Sex-Reversed Animals 260 9.5 Conclusions 265 References 266 10 Birds 272 Paul D. Jones, Markus Hecker, Steve Wiseman, and John P. Giesy 10.1 Introduction 272 10.2 Differences Bet