- Häftad (Paperback / softback)
- Antal sidor
- 2nd Edition
- John Wiley & Sons Inc
- Als-Nielsen, Jens / Als-Nielsen
- colour illustrations
- 241 x 184 x 25 mm
- Antal komponenter
- 1350:Standard Color 7.44 x 9.69 in or 246 x 189 mm (Crown 4vo) Perfect Bound on White w/Gloss Lam
- 929 g
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Elements of Modern X-ray Physics
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Professor Emeritus Jens Als-Nielsen of the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, has been a pioneer in the field of neutron and x-ray scattering contributing to setting high standards for large international synchrotron centres. Today Jens Als-Nielsen's research is still - even after his official retirement - concentrated around x-ray radiation's potential in biological and medical research.? He was educated as a civil engineer in the field of electrophysics and from 1961-1995 was employed at the Riso National Laboratory, as section leader for the Solid-State Physics Section and later as division leader for the Physics Division. He has spent time at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, ESRF, Grenoble. From 1995 until his retirement in 2007 he was professor in experimental solid-state physics at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen. In 1985 he received the European Physical Society's Hewlett-Packard prize in solid-state physics and in 2009 the Velux Fonden's Honour Award for his research in the field of neutron and X-ray scattering. Professor Desmond McMorrow is Professor of Physics at University College London. He received his B.Sc from Sheffield University in 1983and his PhD in 1987 from the University of Manchester. After spending time in research at Edinburgh and Oxford he then worked with at the Riso National Laboratory and collaborated with Professor Als-Nieslen between 1998 and 2003. In 2004 he took up his position at UCL and received from 2004 - 2009 the Royal Society Wolfson Merit Award. His research is focussed on understanding how electrons organise themselves in solids to produce the wonderfully diverse range of phenomena encountered in modern condensed matter physics. His research is based mainly on using x-rays and neutrons to probe the structural and magnetic correlations that dominate the low-energy behaviour of these and other interesting classes of solids.
Preface. Preface to the first edition. Acknowledgements from the first edition. Notes on the use of this book. 1 X-rays and their interaction with matter. 1.1 X-rays: waves and photons. 1.2 Scattering. 1.3 Absorption. 1.4 Refraction and reflection. 1.5 Coherence. 1.6 Magnetic interactions. 1.7 Further reading. 2 Sources. 2.1 Early history and the X-ray tube. 2.2 Introduction to synchrotron radiation. 2.3 Synchrotron radiation from a circular arc. 2.4 Undulator radiation. 2.5 Wiggler radiation. 2.6 Free-electron lasers. 2.7 Compact light sources. 2.8 Coherence volume and photon degeneracy. 2.9 Further reading. 2.10 Exercises. 3 Refraction and reflection from interfaces. 3.1 Refraction and phase shift in scattering. 3.2 Refractive index and scattering length density. 3.3 Refractive index including absorption. 3.4 Snell s law and the Fresnel equations in the X-ray region. 3.5 Reflection from a homogeneous slab. 3.6 Specular reflection from multilayers. 3.7 Reflectivity from a graded interface. 3.8 Rough interfaces and surfaces. 3.9 Examples of reflectivity studies. 3.10 X-ray optics. 3.11 Further reading. 3.12 Exercises. 4 Kinematical scattering I: non-crystalline materials. 4.1 Two electrons. 4.2 Scattering from an atom. 4.3 Scattering from a molecule. 4.4 Scattering from liquids and glasses. 4.5 Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). 4.6 Further reading. 4.7 Exercises. 5 Kinematical scattering II: crystalline order. 5.1 Scattering from a crystal. 5.2 Quasiperiodic structures. 5.3 Crystal truncation rods. 5.4 Lattice vibrations, the Debye-Waller factor and TDS. 5.5 The measured intensity from a crystallite. 5.6 Applications of kinematical diffraction. 5.7 Further reading. 5.8 Exercises. 6 Diffraction by perfect crystals. 6.1 One atomic layer: reflection and transmission. 6.2 Kinematical reflection from a few layers. 6.3 Darwin theory and dynamical diffraction. 6.4 The Darwin reflectivity curve. 6.5 DuMond diagrams. 6.6 Further reading. 6.7 Exercises. 7 Photoelectric absorption. 7.1 X-ray absorption by an isolated atom. 7.2 EXAFS and near-edge structure. 7.3 X-ray dichroism. 7.4 ARPES. 7.5 Further reading. 7.6 Exercises. 8 Resonant scattering. 8.1 The forced charged oscillator model. 8.2 The atom as an assembly of oscillators. 8.3 The Kramers-Kronig relations. 8.4 Numerical estimate of f ' . 8.5 Breakdown of Friedel s law and Bijvoet pairs. 8.6 The phase problem in crystallography. 8.7 Quantum mechanical description. 8.8 Further reading. 8.9 Exercises. 9 Imaging. 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Absorption contrast imaging. 9.3 Phase contrast imaging. 9.4 Coherent diffraction imaging. 9.5 Holography. 9.6 Further reading. 9.7 Exercises. A Scattering and absorption cross-sections. B Classical electric dipole radiation. C Quantization of the electromagnetic field. D Gaussian statistics. E Fourier transforms. F Comparison of X-rays with neutrons. G MATLABr computer programs. H Answers to exercises and hints. Bibliography. Index. List of symbols.