Mandarin Chinese (häftad)
Häftad (Paperback / softback)
Antal sidor
New e.
University of California Press
Thompson, Sandra A.
230 x 150 x 35 mm
920 g
Antal komponenter
Mandarin Chinese (häftad)

Mandarin Chinese

A Functional Reference Grammar

Häftad Engelska, 1989-04-01
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This reference grammar provides, for the first time, a description of the grammar of "Mandarin Chinese", the official spoken language of China and Taiwan, in functional terms, focusing on the role and meanings of word-level and sentence-level structures in actual conversations.
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  1. Mandarin Chinese
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  3. Basic Chinese

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"Li and Thompson's book. . . is clearly ordered and convenient to consult."--"Journal of the American Oriental Society

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Övrig information

Charles N. Li is Professor of Linguistics and Chairperson, Linguistics Department, University of California, Santa Barbara. Sandra A. Thompson is Professor of Linguistics, University of California, Santa Barbara.


Preface to the Paperback Edition Preface Conventiom Used in Examples Abbreviations 1 Introduction l. l The Chinese Language Family 1.2 The Phonology of Mandarin 1.2.1 Initials 1.2.2 Finals 1.2.3 Tones 1.2.4 Phonetic Effects of the Retroflex Suffix 2 Typological Description 2.1 The Structural Complexity of Words: Mandarin as an Isolating Language 2.1.1 Morphemes Occurring with Nouns 2. l. 2 Morphemes Occurring with Verbs 2.2 Monosyllabicity: The Number of Syllables per Word 2.3 Topic Prominence 2.4 Word Order 2.4.1 The Word Order Typology 2.4.2 Word Order in Mandarin 3 Word Structure 3.1 Morphological Processes 3. 1. 1 Reduplication 3.1.2 Affixation 3.2 Compounds 3.2.1 The Meaning of Compounds 3.2.2 Nominal Compounds 3.2.3 Verbal Compounds 3.2.4 Subject-Predicate Compounds 3.2.5 Verb-Object Compounds 3.2.6 Antonymous Adjectives Forming Nominal Compounds 3.2.7 Minor Types of Compounds 4 Simple Declarative Sentences 4.1 Topic and Subject 4.1.1 Characterization of Topic 4.1.2 Characterization of Subject 4.1.3 Comparison of Topic and Subject 4.1.4 Double-Subject Sentences 4.1.5 Comparison with Chao's Analysis 4.1.6 Time and Locative Phrases 4.1.7 Further Examples 4.1.8 Topic as a Discourse Element 4.1. 9 Topic and Coreference in Discourse 4.2 The Noun Phrase 4.2.1 Classifier Phrases/Measure Phrases 4.2.2 Associative Phrases 4.2.3 Modifying Phrases 4.2.4 The Order of Elements in a Noun Phrase 4.2.5 Definiteness and Referentiality 4.2.6 Pronouns 4.2.7 Reflexives 4. 3 The Verb Phrase 4.3.1 Types of Verb Phrases 5 Auxiliary Verbs 5.1 Auxiliary Verb versus Verb 5.2 Auxiliary Verb versus Adverb 5.3 List of Auxiliary Verbs 6 Aspect 6.1 The Perfective Aspect 6.1.1 Where to Use -le: A Bounded Event 6.1.2 Where Not to Use -le 6.1.3 -le in Imperatives 6.1.4 -le Does Not Mean Past Tense 6.1.5 -le Does Not Mean Completion 6.1.6 Summary 6.2 The Durative Aspect 6.2.1 Semantic Types of Verbs and the Durative Aspect Markers -me and zai 6.2.2 Complex Sentences with the Durative Aspect Marker -zhe 6.3 The Experiential Aspect 6.4 The Delimitative Aspect 6.5 Summary 7 Sentence-Final Particles 7.1 le 7. 1. 1 The Communicative Function of le 7 .1.2 Where Not to Use le 7. l. 3 Perfective -le versus CRS le 7.2 ne 7.3 ba 7.4 ou 7.5 a/ya 7.6 Conclusion 8 Adverbs 8. 1 Movable Adverbs 8.1.1 Movable Adverbs of Time 8. l. 2 Movable Adverbs of Attitude 8.2 Nonmovable Adverbs 8.2.1 Manner Adverbs 8.2.2 Nonmanner Adverbs 8.3 Negation and Adverbs 8.3.1 Negation and Movable Adverbs 8.3.2 Negation and Nonmovable Adverbs 8.4 Adverbs and the bii Construction 8.5 Quantity Adverbial Phrases 9 Coverbs/Prepositions 9. l The Function of Coverbs 9. l. 1 Occurrence with Aspect Markers 9.1.2 Coverbs That Can Function as Verbs 9. 2 Representative List of Co verbs 10 Indirect Objects and Benefactives 10. 1 gei Obligatory 10.2 gei Optional 10.3 gei Forbidden 10.4 Apparent Indirect Objects 10.5 Explanation for the Indirect Object Facts 10.6 Benefactive Noun Phrases, and Preverbal Indirect Object 10.7 Other Functions of gei 11 Locative and Directional Phrases 11. l Locative Phrases 11. l. l The Structure of Locative Phrases 11.1.2 The Position of the Locative Phrase in the Sentence 11.2 Directional Phrases with dao 'to' 12 Negation 12.1 The Position and Scope of Negative Particles 12.2 The Functions of bu and mei(you) 12.2. 1 Variation in the Meaning of Sentences with bu 12.2.2 Types of Verb Phrases 12.2.3 Resultative Verb Compounds 12.3 mei(you) Is Not a Past Tense Negative Particle 12.4 Negation and Aspect 12.5 Negating Some Element other than a Simple Verb Phrase 12.6 Summary 13 Verb Copying 13.1 Where Verb Copying Occurs 13.2 Grammatical Properties of the Verb-Copying Construction 14 The Imperative 15 The bii Construction 15.1 The bd Noun Phrase 15.2 Disposal 15.3 bii Sen