Joint Cognitive Systems (inbunden)
Inbunden (Hardback)
Antal sidor
illustrated ed
CRC Press Inc
black and white 14 Illustrations 2 Halftones, black and white 6 Tables black and white
2 Halftones, black and white; 6 Tables, black and white; 14 Illustrations, black and white
242 x 162 x 16 mm
460 g
Antal komponenter
Joint Cognitive Systems (inbunden)

Joint Cognitive Systems

Patterns in Cognitive Systems Engineering

Inbunden Engelska, 2006-03-01
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Our fascination with new technologies is based on the assumption that more powerful automation will overcome human limitations and make our systems 'faster, better, cheaper,' resulting in simple, easy tasks for people. But how does new technology and more powerful automation change our work? Research in Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) looks at the intersection of people, technology, and work. What it has found is not stories of simplification through more automation, but stories of complexity and adaptation. When work changed through new technology, practitioners had to cope with new complexities and tighter constraints. They adapted their strategies and the artifacts to work around difficulties and accomplish their goals as responsible agents. The surprise was that new powers had transformed work, creating new roles, new decisions, and new vulnerabilities. Ironically, more autonomous machines have created the requirement for more sophisticated forms of coordination across people, and across people and machines, to adapt to new demands and pressures. This book synthesizes these emergent Patterns though stories about coordination and mis-coordination, resilience and brittleness, affordance and clumsiness in a variety of settings, from a hospital intensive care unit, to a nuclear power control room, to a space shuttle control center. The stories reveal how new demands make work difficult, how people at work adapt but get trapped by complexity, and how people at a distance from work oversimplify their perceptions of the complexities, squeezing practitioners. The authors explore how CSE observes at the intersection of people, technology, and work, how CSE abstracts patterns behind the surface details and wide variations, and how CSE discovers promising new directions to help people cope with complexities. The stories of CSE show that one key to well-adapted work is the ability to be prepared to be surprised. Are you ready?
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Erik Hollnagel is presently Senior Professor of Patient Safety at the University of Jonkoping, Sweden


Preface CORE ACTIVITIES AND VALUES Adaptability versus Limits Complementarity Core Values of CSE in Practice On Systems in CSE Patterns Discovering Patterns in Joint Cognitive Systems at Work A JCS at Work: JOINT COGNITIVE SYSTEMS ADAPT TO COPE WITH COMPLEXITY Adaptation in Joint Cognitive Systems at work BEING BUMPABLE The Story: A Delay The Intensive Care Unit the Scene, the Cast, and BackDrop Coping with Complexity: Parceling out beds by the Bedmeister Artifacts as Tools: The Bed Book Preparing for Demand > Supply Situations Son of coping: Building an ICU from Scratch Piling Pelion on Ossa: Escalating Demands Observations on the Incident DISCOVERY AS FUNCTIONAL SYNTHESIS 'Being Bumpable' as An Example of Studying a JCS at work Insight and Functional Synthesis SHAPING THE CONDITIONS OF OBSERVATION Three Families of Methods Converging Operations The Psychologist's Fallacy FUNCTIONAL SYNTHESES, LAWS, AND DESIGN Properties of Functional Syntheses On Laws that Govern Joint cognitive Systems at Work Challenges To Inform Design Patterns in How Joint Cognitive Systems Work ARCHETYPICAL STORIES OF JOINT COGNITIVE SYSTEMS AT WORK Demands and Adaptation Affordances Coordination Resilience Story Archetypes in 'Being Bumpable' ANOMALY RESPONSE Control Centers in Action Cascading Effects Interventions Revision Fixation Generating Hypotheses Recognizing Anomalies The Puzzle of Expectancies Control of Attention Alarms and Directed Attention Updating Common Ground When a Team Member Returns Updating a Shared Frame of Reference Patterns in Anomaly Response PATTERNS IN MULTI-THREADED WORK Managing Multiple Threads in Time Tempo Escalation Coupling Premature Narrowing Reframing Dilemmas Over-Simplifications AUTOMATION SURPRISES The Substitution Myth Surprises about Automation Brittleness Managing Workload in Time Tailoring Failure of Machine Explanation Why is technology so Often Clumsy? Making Automation a Team Player A Coordination Breakdown in Response to a Disrupting Event ON PEOPLE AND COMPUTERS IN JCSS AT WORK Envisioning The Impact of New Technology Responsibility in Joint Cognitive Sytems at Work Problem-Holders Goal Conflicts Adapting to Double Binds Literal-Minded Agents Norbert's Contrast Directions for Designing Joint Cognitive Systems that Include Robotic Platforms Reverberations of New Robotic Technologies LAWS THAT GOVERN JCSS AT WORK A Tactic to Reduce the Mis-Engineering of Joint Cognitive Systems Five Families of First Principles or Laws Laws That Govern Joint Cognitive Systems at work Generic Requirements to Design Joint Cognitive Systems that Work Design Responsibility Patterns and Stories Bibliography Appendix A Appendix B Author Index Subject Index