Fundamentals of Geobiology (inbunden)
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Fundamentals of Geobiology (inbunden)

Fundamentals of Geobiology

Inbunden Engelska, 2012-04-19
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2012 PROSE Award, Earth Science: Honorable Mention For more than fifty years scientists have been concerned with the interrelationships of Earth and life. Over the past decade, however, geobiology, the name given to this interdisciplinary endeavour, has emerged as an exciting and rapidly expanding field, fuelled by advances in molecular phylogeny, a new microbial ecology made possible by the molecular revolution, increasingly sophisticated new techniques for imaging and determining chemical compositions of solids on nanometer scales, the development of non-traditional stable isotope analyses, Earth systems science and Earth system history, and accelerating exploration of other planets within and beyond our solar system. Geobiology has many faces: there is the microbial weathering of minerals, bacterial and skeletal biomineralization, the roles of autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolisms in elemental cycling, the redox history in the oceans and its relationship to evolution and the origin of life itself. This book is the first to set out a coherent set of principles that underpin geobiology, and will act as a foundational text that will speed the dissemination of those principles. The chapters have been carefully chosen to provide intellectually rich but concise summaries of key topics, and each has been written by one or more of the leading scientists in that field. Fundamentals of Geobiology is aimed at advanced undergraduates and graduates in the Earth and biological sciences, and to the growing number of scientists worldwide who have an interest in this burgeoning new discipline. Additional resources for this book can be found at:
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In summary, Fundamentals of Geobiology would be a welcome addition to any geoscientist s bookshelf, especially those interested in sedimentary geology, palaeobiology or Earth history. (The Geological Journal, 1 January 2013) It would be this reviewer s stranded on a desert island selection. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through professionals. (Choice, 1 January 2013) PROSE Awards 2012: Honorable Mention in the Earth Sciences Category.

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Andrew H. Knoll is the Fisher Professor of Natural History at Harvard University. A paleontologist by training, he has worked for three decades to understand the environmental history of Earth and, more recently, Mars. Knoll is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Donald E. Canfield is Professor of Ecology at the University of Southern Denmark and Director of the Nordic Center for Earth Evolution (NordCEE). Canfield uses the study of modern microbes and microbial ecosystems to understand the evolution of Earth surface chemistry and biology through time. Canfield is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Kurt O. Konhauser is a Professor of Geomicrobiology at the University of Alberta. He is Editor-in-Chief for the journal, Geobiology, and author of the textbook, Introduction to Geomicrobiology. His research focuses on metal-mineral-microbe interactions in both modern and ancient environments.


Contributors, xi 1. What is Geobiology?, 1 Andrew H. Knoll, Donald E. Canfield, and Kurt O. Konhauser 1.1 Introduction, 1 1.2 Life interacting with the Earth, 2 1.3 Pattern and process in geobiology, 2 1.4 New horizons in geobiology, 3 2. The Global Carbon Cycle: Biological Processes, 5 Paul G. Falkowski 2.1 Introduction, 5 2.2 A brief primer on redox reactions, 5 2.3 Carbon as a substrate for biological reactions, 5 2.4 The evolution of photosynthesis, 8 2.5 The evolution of oxygenic phototrophs, 11 2.6 Net primary production, 13 2.7 What limits NPP on land and in the ocean?, 15 2.8 Is NPP in balance with respiration?, 16 2.9 Conclusions and extensions, 17 3. The Global Carbon Cycle: Geological Processes, 20 Klaus Wallmann and Giovanni Aloisi 3.1 Introduction, 20 3.2 Organic carbon cycling, 20 3.3 Carbonate cycling, 22 3.4 Mantle degassing, 23 3.5 Metamorphism, 24 3.6 Silicate weathering, 24 3.7 Feedbacks, 25 3.8 Balancing the geological carbon cycle, 26 3.9 Evolution of the geological carbon cycle through Earth's history: proxies and models, 27 3.10 The geological C cycle through time, 30 3.11 Limitations and perspectives, 32 4. The Global Nitrogen Cycle, 36 Bess Ward 4.1 Introduction, 36 4.2 Geological nitrogen cycle, 36 4.3 Components of the global nitrogen cycle, 38 4.4 Nitrogen redox chemistry, 40 4.5 Biological reactions of the nitrogen cycle, 40 4.6 Atmospheric nitrogen chemistry, 45 4.7 Summary and areas for future research, 46 5. The Global Sulfur Cycle, 49 Donald E. Canfield and James Farquhar 5.1 Introduction, 49 5.2 The global sulfur cycle from two perspectives, 49 5.3 The evolution of S metabolisms, 53 5.4 The interaction of S with other biogeochemical cycles, 55 5.5 The evolution of the S cycle, 59 5.6 Closing remarks, 61 6. The Global Iron Cycle, 65 Brian Kendall, Ariel D. Anbar, Andreas Kappler and Kurt O. Konhauser 6.1 Overview, 65 6.2 The inorganic geochemistry of iron: redox and reservoirs, 65 6.3 Iron in modern biology and biogeochemical cycles, 69 6.4 Iron through time, 73 6.5 Summary, 83 7. The Global Oxygen Cycle, 93 James F. Kasting and Donald E. Canfield 7.1 Introduction, 93 7.2 The chemistry and biochemistry of oxygen, 93 7.3 The concept of redox balance, 94 7.4 The modern O2 cycle, 94 7.5 Cycling of O2 and H2 on the early Earth, 98 7.6 Synthesis: speculations about the timing and cause of the rise of atmospheric O2, 102 8. Bacterial Biomineralization, 105 Kurt Konhauser and Robert Riding 8.1 Introduction, 105 8.2 Mineral nucleation and growth, 105 8.3 How bacteria facilitate biomineralization, 106 8.4 Iron oxyhydroxides, 111 8.5 Calcium carbonates, 116 9. Mineral Organic Microbe Interfacial Chemistry, 131 David J. Vaughan and Jonathan R. Lloyd 9.1 Introduction, 131 9.2 The mineral surface (and mineral bio interface) and techniques for its study, 131 9.3 Mineral-organic-microbe interfacial processes: some key examples, 140 10. Eukaryotic Skeletal Formation, 150 Adam F. Wallace, Dongbo Wang, Laura M. Hamm, Andrew H. Knoll and Patricia M. Dove 10.1 Introduction, 150 10.2 Mineralization by unicellular organisms, 151 10.3 Mineralization by multicellular organisms, 164 10.4 A brief history of skeletons, 173 10.5 Summary, 175 11. Plants and Animals as Geobiological Agents, 188 David J. Beerling and Nicholas J. Butterfield 11.1 Introduction, 188 11.2 Land plants as geobiological agents, 188 11.3 Animals as geobiological agents, 195 11.4 Conclusions, 200 12. A Geobiological View of Weathering and Erosion, 205 Susan L. Brantley, Marina Lebedeva and Elisabeth M. Hausrath 12.1 Introduction, 205 12.2 Effects of biota on weathering, 207 12.3 Effects of organic molecules on weather