Taphonomy of Human Remains (inbunden)
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Taphonomy of Human Remains (inbunden)

Taphonomy of Human Remains

Forensic Analysis of the Dead and the Depositional Environment

Inbunden Engelska, 2017-03-31
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A truly interdisciplinary approach to this core subject within Forensic Science * Combines essential theory with practical crime scene work * Includes case studies * Applicable to all time periods so has relevance for conventional archaeology, prehistory and anthropology * Combines points of view from both established practitioners and young researchers to ensure relevance
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Eline M. J. Schotsmans is a post-doctoral researcher in forensic archaeology and taphonomy at the Laboratory of Anthropology of Past and Present Populations (PACEA) at the University of Bordeaux, France, and an honorary fellow at the University of Bradford, UK. She has worked on various forensic cases and conducts research in taphonomy that lies at the interface between archaeo-anthropology and forensic sciences. Nicholas Marquez-Grant is a Lecturer in Forensic Anthropology and Course Director MSc in Forensic Archaeology and Anthropology at Cranfield University, UK. He is also a Research Associate at the University of Oxford. He has analysed human remains from a number of countries and chronological periods and currently undertakes forensic casework in the UK. Shari Forbes is a Professor and ARC Future Fellow in the Centre for Forensic Science at the University of Technology Sydney. She is also the Director of the Australian Facility for Taphonomic Experimental Research (AFTER), the first facility in Australia that allows scientists to study the decomposition of human cadavers. She is regularly consulted on forensic casework and assists police to search for and locate human remains using police dogs and geophysical equipment.


List of Contributors xix Notes on Contributors xxvii Foreword xxix Acknowledgements xxxi Introduction 1 Eline M.J. Schotsmans, Nicholas Marquez-Grant and Shari L. Forbes I.1 Efremov: from Taphonomy to Science Fiction 1 I.2 The Meaning of Taphonomy 2 I.3 The Rationale Behind this Volume 3 I.4 Challenges in Forensic Taphonomy 4 I.5 Organisation of the Volume 6 References 7 Part I General Post-Mortem Processes: Degradation of Soft Tissue, Bone and Associated Materials 9 1 Gross Post-Mortem Changes in the Human Body 11 Stuart J. Hamilton and Michael A. Green 1.1 Introduction 11 1.2 The Immediate Post-Mortem Period 11 1.3 Subsequent Weeks 16 1.4 Other Post-Mortem Modifications 16 1.5 Skeletonisation 22 1.6 Conclusion and Future Research 22 References 23 Cited court cases 25 2 Microscopic Post-Mortem Changes: the Chemistry of Decomposition 26 Shari L. Forbes, Katelynn A. Perrault and Jenna L. Comstock 2.1 Introduction 26 2.2 Autolysis 27 2.3 Putrefaction 27 2.4 Factors Affecting Autolysis and Putrefaction 31 2.5 Impact of the Decomposition Process on the Surrounding Environment 32 2.6 Conclusion 35 References 35 3 Profiling Volatile Organic Compounds of Decomposition 39 Pierre-Hugues Stefanuto, Elien Rosier, Jan Tytgat, Jean-Francois Focant and Eva Cuypers 3.1 Introduction 39 3.2 Matrices and Sampling Methods 40 3.3 Results and Discussion 46 3.4 Conclusion and Future Research 49 References 50 4 Blood Degradation and Bloodstain Age Estimation 53 Gerda J. Edelman and Maurice C.G. Aalders 4.1 Introduction: Forensic relevance of bloodstains 53 4.2 Blood Degradation 54 4.3 Mechanical and Morphological Changes 55 4.4 Optical Methods 55 4.5 Practical Implementation 59 4.6 Crime Scene Challenges of Bloodstain Age Estimation 60 4.7 Conclusion 62 References 62 5 DNA Degradation: Current Knowledge and Progress in DNA Analysis 65 Claudio Ottoni, Bram Bekaert and Ronny Decorte 5.1 Introduction 65 5.2 Mechanisms of DNA Degradation 65 5.3 Preservation of DNA: Recommendations Concerning Sampling and Storage 68 5.4 Methodologies to Analyse Degraded DNA 70 5.5 Future Prospects 74 5.6 Conclusion 75 References 75 6 Taphonomic Alterations to Hair and Nail 81 Andrew S. Wilson 6.1 Introduction 81 6.2 Structure of Hair and Nail 82 6.3 Changes to Hair and Nail 83 6.4 Processing and Storage of Hair 87 6.5 Conclusion 87 Acknowledgements 88 References 88 7 Taphonomy of Teeth 92 Christopher W. Schmidt, Robin Quataert, Fatma Zalzala and Ruggero D Anastasio 7.1 Introduction 92 7.2 Mechanical Damage: Forensic Case Study 93 7.3 Effects of Thermal Damage 94 7.4 Thermal Damage: Archaeological Case Study 95 7.5 Caveats 97 7.6 Conclusion 98 References 98 8 The Taphonomy of Natural Mummies 101 Dario Piombino-Mascali, Heather Gill-Frerking and Ronald G. Beckett 8.1 Introduction 101 8.2 Post-Mortem Decay 102 8.3 Natural or Spontaneous Mummification 102 8.4 Soft Tissue Changes 103 8.5 Environment, Culture or Both? 104 8.6 Dry Environments 104 8.7 Bog Environments 109 8.8 Cold Environments 110 8.9 Anaerobic Environments 112 8.10 Differential Decomposition 113 8.11 Post-Depositional Factors and Taphonomic Impact 114 8.12 Conclusion 116 References 116 9 Degradation of Clothing in Depositional Environments 120 Barbara H. Stuart and Maiken Ueland 9.1 Introduction 120 9.2 The Structures and Properties of Clothing Materials 120 9.3 Decomposition Mechanisms of Clothing Materials in Depositional Environments 124 9.4 The Influence of Clothing on the Decomposition Processes 127 9.5 Forensic and Archaeological Studies of Clothing Degradation 128 9.6 Protocols for Forensic and Archaeological Clothing Collection and Analysis 130 9.7 Co