Harmful Algal Blooms (inbunden)
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John Wiley & Sons Inc
Morton, Steve L.
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Harmful Algal Blooms (inbunden)

Harmful Algal Blooms

A Compendium Desk Reference

Inbunden Engelska, 2018-07-20
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Harmful Algal Blooms: A Compendium Desk Reference provides basic information on harmful algal blooms (HAB) and references for individuals in need of technical information when faced with unexpected or unknown harmful algal events. Chapters in this volume will provide readers with information on causes of HAB, successful management and monitoring programs, control, prevention, and mitigation strategies, economic consequences of HAB, associated risks to human health, impacts of HAB on food webs and ecosystems, and detailed information on the most common HAB species. Harmful Algal Blooms: A Compendium Desk Reference will be an invaluable resource to managers, newcomers to the field, those who do not have easy or affordable access to scientific literature, and individuals who simply do not know where to begin searching for the information needed, especially when faced with novel and unexpected HAB events. Edited by three of the world's leading harmful algal bloom researchers and with contributions from leading experts, Harmful Algal Blooms: A Compendium Desk Reference will be a key source of information for this increasingly important topic.
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Sandra E. Shumway, University of Connecticut, Groton, CT, USA. JoAnn M. Burkholder, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA. Steven L. Morton, NOAA National Ocean Service, Charleston, SC, USA.


List of Contributors xvii Acknowledgments xxi Introduction xxiii 1 Causes of Harmful Algal Blooms 1 Patricia M. Glibert and JoAnn M. Burkholder 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 "Getting There": The Classic Perspective on Introduced Species and Links to Cultural Eutrophication 2 1.2.1 Introduced Species 2 1.2.2 Anthropogenically Introduced Nutrients 3 1.3 "Being There": Blooms and Why They Succeed 5 1.3.1 Nutrient-Related HAB 5 1.3.2 Resource Ratios, Nutrient Stoichiometry, and Optimal Nutrient Ratios 6 1.3.3 Diversity in Use of Forms of Nitrogen 9 1.3.4 Toxicity 10 1.3.5 Mixotrophy: Use of "Packaged" and Dissolved Particulate Nutrients 12 1.3.6 Other Adaptations 13 1.4 "Staying There": Links to Physical Structure and Climate 14 1.4.1 Physical Structure: Large-Scale and Small-Scale Natural Hydrological Features 14 1.4.2 Physical Dynamics: Anthropogenic Hydrological Changes 15 1.4.3 Reinforcing Feedbacks 16 Trophic Disruptions 16 Biogeochemical Alterations 17 1.4.4 Climate Change 18 1.5 Conclusions 20 Acknowledgments 21 References 21 2 Detection and Surveillance of Harmful Algal Bloom Species and Toxins 39 Gregory J. Doucette, Linda K. Medlin, Pearse McCarron, and Philipp Hess 2.1 Introduction 39 2.2 Organism Detection 41 2.2.1 Visual/Optical 41 Light Microscopy (LM)/Utermoehl's 41 Light Microscopy/Flow Cytometry 41 In Vivo Fluorometry 42 Spectral Absorbance/Spectroradiometry 43 2.2.2 Molecular 43 Whole Cell Format 44 Cell-Free Format 47 2.3 Toxin Detection 51 2.3.1 In Vivo Assays 53 Rat Bioassay 58 Mouse Bioassay 58 2.3.2 In Vitro Assays 59 Functional Assays 60 Structural Assays 66 Biosensors 71 2.3.3 Analytical Techniques 72 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Optical Detection (UV or FLD) 73 Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) 75 Other Analytical Methods: Capillary Electrophoresis (CE), Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF), and Laser Ablation Electrospray Ionization (LAESI) 78 Perspectives 79 2.4 Autonomous, In Situ Technologies 80 2.4.1 Environmental Sample Processor (McLane Research Laboratories) 81 2.4.2 Imaging Flow Cytobot (McLane Research Laboratories) 83 2.4.3 Optical Phytoplankton Discriminator (aka BreveBuster; Mote Marine Laboratory) 84 2.4.4 CytoBuoy (CytoBuoy b.v.) 85 2.4.5 SPATT Passive Samplers 86 2.5 Conclusions and Future Prospects 87 Disclaimer 89 References and Further Reading 89 3 Modeling Marine Harmful Algal Blooms: Current Status and Future Prospects 115 Kevin J. Flynn and Dennis J. McGillicuddy, Jr. 3.1 Introduction 115 3.2 Building Models to Describe Ecological Events 117 3.3 Limitations to What Models Can Do, and Why 119 3.3.1 Building Models 119 3.3.2 Model Complexity 119 3.3.3 The Need for Data 120 3.3.4 Validating Models 121 3.4 Modeling T-HAB and ED-HAB Events 121 3.5 How Good Are Current HAB Models? 122 3.6 Future Modeling of T-HAB and ED-HAB: Managing Expectations 128 3.7 Improving Our Capabilities 129 3.7.1 Changes in the Biological-Modeling Interface 129 Acknowledgments 130 References 130 4 Harmful Algal Blooms and Shellfish 135 Leila Basti, Helene Hegaret, and Sandra E. Shumway 4.1 Introduction 135 4.2 Major Shellfish Poisonings 136 4.2.1 Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) 136 4.2.2 Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) 137 4.2.3 Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP) 138 4.2.4 Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP) 139 4.2.5 Azaspiracid Shellfish Poisoning (AZP) 139 4.3 Other Toxins: Pectenotoxins (PTX) and Yessotoxins (YTX) 140 4.4 Emerging Shellfish Poisonings 141 4.5 Toxin Uptake, Accumulation, and Depuration 142 4.6 Shellfish Contamination in North Ameri