Laser Technology (inbunden)
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Laser Technology (inbunden)

Laser Technology

Applications in Adhesion and Related Areas

Inbunden Engelska, 2018-02-01
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The acronym Laser is derived from Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. With the advent of the ruby laser in 1960, there has been tremendous research activity in developing novel, more versatile and more efficient laser sources or devices, as lasers applications are ubiquitous. Today, lasers are used in many areas of human endeavor and are routinely employed in a host of diverse fields: various branches of engineering, microelectronics, biomedical, medicine, dentistry, surgery, surface modification, to name just a few. In this book (containing 10 chapters) we have focused on application of lasers in adhesion and related areas. The topics covered include: - Topographical modification of polymers and metals by laser ablation to create superhydrophobic surfaces. - Non-ablative laser surface modification. - Laser surface modification to enhance adhesion. - Laser surface engineering of materials to modulate their wetting behavior - Laser surface modification in dentistry. - Laser polymer welding. - Laser based adhesion testing technique to measure thin film-substrate interface toughness. - Laser surface removal of hard thin ceramic coatings. - Laser removal of particles from surfaces. - Laser induced thin film debonding for micro-device fabrication applications.
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Kashmiri Lal Mittal was employed by the IBM Corporation from 1972 through 1993 Currently, he is teaching and consulting worldwide in the broad areas of adhesion as well as surface cleaning. He has received numerous awards and honors including the title of doctor honoris causa from Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin, Poland. He is the editor of more than 130 books dealing with adhesion measurement, adhesion of polymeric coatings, polymer surfaces, adhesive joints, adhesion promoters, thin films, polyimides, surface modification surface cleaning, and surfactants. Dr. Mittal is also the Founding Editor of the journal Reviews of Adhesion and Adhesives. Wei-Sheng Lei is a senior technologist at Applied Materials, Inc. on developing advanced technologies and high-value, high-volume manufacturing equipment solutions for laser precision materials engineering applications. He holds a PhD in materials science from Harbin Institute of Technology of China and a Dr. rer. nat. degree in solid mechanics from RWTH Aachen University of Germany. Dr. Lei is the co-inventor of over 100 patents in the US and other countries, and has published more than 100 papers in peer-reviewed journals and conferences.


Preface xiii Part 1: Laser Surface Modification and Adhesion Enhancement 1 1 Topographical Modification of Polymers and Metals by Laser Ablation to Create Superhydrophobic Surfaces 3 Frank L. Palmieri and Christopher J. Wohl 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Wetting Theory 6 1.3 Laser Ablation Background 12 1.3.1 Ablation Mechanics 12 1.3.2 Ablation in Metals 13 1.3.3 Ablation in Polymers 16 1.4 Preparation of Superhydrophobic Surfaces by Laser Ablation 18 1.4.1 Hydrophobic Organic Substrates 18 1.4.2 Hydrophilic Organic Substrates 26 1.4.3 Hydrophilic Substrates with Hydrophobic Coatings 32 1.4.4 Hydrophilic Inorganic Substrates 43 Metallic substrates 44 Silicon substrates 51 Ceramic Substrates 55 1.5 Summary 56 References 57 2 Nonablative Laser Surface Modification 69 Andy Hooper 2.1 Introduction 69 2.2 Part 1 - Nonablative Laser Skin Photorejuvenation 70 2.2.1 Introduction 70 2.2.2 Nonablative Laser-Based Skin Treatments 72 2.2.3 Review of Nonablative Laser-Based Skin Treatments Based on Laser Type 73 Lasers Emitting at 532 nm 73 Lasers Emitting at 511, 578, 585, and 600 nm Wavelengths 75 Lasers Emitting at 780 nm 76 Lasers Emitting at 980 nm 76 Lasers Emitting at 1064 nm 76 Lasers Emitting at 1320 nm 77 Lasers Emitting at 1450 nm 78 Lasers Emitting at 1540 nm 78 Lasers Emitting at 2940 nm 80 2.2.4 Combined Techniques 81 2.2.5 Conclusions for Part 1 - Nonablative Laser Skin Photorejuvenation 81 2.3 Part 2 -Formation of Micro-/Nano-Structures and LIPSS in Materials by Nonablative Laser Processing 82 2.3.1 Introduction 82 2.3.2 Review of Micro-/Nano-Structures and LIPSS 83 Micro-/Nano-Structures and LIPSS Formation in Metals 83 Micro-/Mano-Structures and LIPSS Formation in Semiconductors 85 Micro-/Nano-Structures and LIPSS Formation in Dielectrics 86 Micro-/Nano-Structures and LIPSS Formation in Polymers 86 Micro-/Nano-Structures and LIPSS Formation in Multiple Materials 87 2.3.3 Part 2 -Conclusion for Formation of Micro-/Nano-Structures and LIPSS in Materials by Nonablative Laser Processing 87 2.4 Part 3 - Nonablative Laser Surface Modification to Alter the Surface Properties of Materials 87 2.4.1 Introduction 88 2.4.2 Examples of Nonablative Laser Surface Modification to Alter the Surface Properties of Materials 88 2.4.3 Conclusions for Part 3 - Nonablative Laser Surface Modification to Alter Surface Properties 92 2.5 Summary 93 References 94 3 Wettability Characteristics of Laser Surface Engineered Polymers 99 D.G. Waugh and J. Lawrence 3.1 Introduction 99 3.2 Lasers for Surface Engineering 101 3.2.1 Infrared Lasers for Surface Engineering 101 3.2.2 Ultraviolet Lasers for Surface Engineering 102 3.2.3 Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers for Surface Engineering 104 3.3 Laser Surface-Engineered Topography 105 3.4 Laser Surface-Engineered Wettability 110 3.5 Summary 116 References 117 4 Laser Surface Modification for Adhesion Enhancement 123 Wei-Sheng Lei and Kash Mittal 4.1 Introduction 124 4.1.1 Mechanisms or Theories of Adhesion 124 4.1.2 Methods of Surface Modification for Adhesion Enhancement 126 4.2 Basic Mechanisms of Laser Surface Modification 127 4.2.1 Absorption of Laser Radiation in a Material 128 Linear Absorption 129 Nonlinear Absorption 129 4.2.2 Photo-Chemical Process 130 4.2.3 Photo-Thermal Process 132 Conventional Heat Flow Model 132 Two-Temperature Model 135 Ablation Rate and Ablation Spot Size 137 4.3 Laser Induced Surface Modification of Metal Substrates to Enhance Adhesion 138 4.3.1 Laser Induced Surface Cleaning and Activation for Adhesion Improvement 138 4.3.2 The Dominant Role of Mechanical Interlocking for Adhesion Improvement 141 4.3.3 Laser Surface Patterning 142 4.3.4 Laser Surface Topography Mo