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Human Impact on the Natural Environment
Past, Present and Future599
A brand new edition of the definitive textbook on humankind's impact on the Earth's environment-now in full color This classic text explores the multitude of impacts that humans have had over time upon vegetation, animals, soils, water, landforms, and the atmosphere. It considers the ways in which climate changes and modifications in land cover may change the environment in coming decades. Thoroughly revised to cover the remarkable transformation in interest that humans are having in the environment, this book examines previously uncovered topics, such as rewilding, ecosystem services, techniques for study, novel and no analogue ecosystems, and more. It also presents the latest views on big themes such as human origins, the anthropocene, domestication, extinctions, and ecological invasions. Extensively re-written, Human Impact on the Natural Environment, Eighth Edition contains many new and updated statistical tables, figures, and references. It offers enlightening chapters that look at the past and present state of the world-examining our impact on the land itself and the creatures that inhabit it; the oceans, lakes, rivers and streams; and the climate and atmosphere. The book also takes a deep look at our future impact on the planet and its resources-our affect on the coastal environments, the cryosphere and the drylands, as well as the hydrological and geomorphological impacts. Fully updated to take account of recent advances in our understanding of global warming and other phenomena Offers current opinions on such topics as human origins, the anthropocene, domestication, extinctions, and ecological invasions Features a full-color presentation to allow for more and clearer photographs and diagrams Contains more international case studies than previous editions to balance UK examples Human Impact on the Natural Environment is essential reading for undergraduates in geography and environmental science, and for those who want a thorough, wide-ranging and balanced overview of the impacts of humans upon natural processes and systems from the Stone Age to the Anthropocene and who wish to understand the major environmental issues that concern the human race at the present time.
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Fler böcker av Andrew S Goudie
ANDREW S. GOUDIE is Emeritus Professor of Geography and former Master of St. Cross College, Oxford.
Preface to the Eighth Edition xi About the Companion Website xiii 1 Introduction 1 1.1 The Development of Ideas 1 1.2 The Anthropocene 5 1.3 The Development of Human Population and Stages of Cultural Development 6 1.4 Hunting and Gathering 10 1.5 Humans as Cultivators and Keepers 12 1.6 Mining and Metals 18 1.7 Modern Industrial and Urban Civilizations 19 1.8 The Great Acceleration 21 1.9 Methods of Study 24 Guide to Reading 25 2 The Human Impact on Vegetation 27 2.1 Human Impacts on Nature 27 2.2 Vegetation Change: Introduction 28 2.3 The Use of Fire 32 2.4 Fires: Natural and Anthropogenic 34 2.5 Some Consequences of Fire Suppression 34 2.6 Some Effects of Fire on Vegetation 35 2.7 The Role of Grazing 37 2.8 Deforestation 39 2.9 Tropical Forests 40 2.10 The Forest Transition 47 2.11 Secondary Rain Forest 48 2.12 The Human Role in the Creation and Maintenance of Savanna 49 2.13 The Spread of Desert Vegetation on Desert Margins 52 2.14 The Maquis of the Mediterranean Lands 56 2.15 The Prairies and Other MidA ]latitude and HighA ]altitude Grasslands 56 2.16 PostA ]glacial Vegetational Change in Britain and Europe 59 2.17 Lowland Heaths 60 2.18 Introduction, Invasion, and Explosion 61 2.19 Air Pollution and Its Effects on Plants 65 2.20 Forest Decline 67 2.21 Miscellaneous Causes of Plant Decline 70 2.22 The Change in Genetic and Species Diversity 71 2.23 Conclusion: Threats to Plant Life 72 Guide to Reading 72 3 The Human Impact on Animals 75 3.1 Domestication of Animals 75 3.2 Dispersal and Invasions of Animals 76 3.3 Human Influence on the Expansion of Animal Populations 82 3.4 Causes of Animal Contractions and Decline: Pollution 86 3.5 Habitat Change and Animal Decline 89 3.6 Other Causes of Animal Decline 93 3.7 Animal Extinctions in Prehistoric Times 98 3.8 ModernA ]day Extinctions 102 Guide to Reading 108 4 The Human Impact on the Soil 111 4.1 Introduction 111 4.2 Salinity: Natural Sources 112 4.3 Human Agency and Increased Salinity 112 4.4 Irrigation Salinity 113 4.5 Dryland Salinity 114 4.6 Urban Salinity 116 4.7 InterA ]basin Water Transfers 116 4.8 Coastal Zone Salinity 116 4.9 Consequences of Salinity 118 4.10 Reclamation of SaltA ]affected Lands 118 4.11 Lateritization 120 4.12 Accelerated Podzolization and Acidification 121 4.13 Soil Carbon 122 4.14 Soil Structure Alteration 123 4.15 Soil Drainage and its Impact 125 4.16 Soil Fertilization 126 4.17 Fires and Soil Quality 126 4.18 Some Anthrosols Resulting from Agriculture and Urbanization 127 4.19 Soil Erosion: General Considerations 127 4.20 The Causes of Soil Erosion 128 4.21 Forest Removal 129 4.22 Soil Erosion Associated with Grazing 132 4.23 Irrigation and Erosion 132 4.24 Replacement of Grassland by Shrubland in Drylands 133 4.25 Soil Erosion Produced by Fire 133 4.26 Soil Erosion Associated with Construction and Urbanization 134 4.27 LongA ]term Studies of Rates of Erosion 134 4.28 Peat Bog Erosion 137 4.29 Accelerated Wind Erosion 138 4.30 Soil Conservation 140 4.31 Soils, Microbiology, and the Earth System 143 Guide to Reading 144 5 The Human Impact on the Waters 145 5.1 Introduction 145 5.2 Deliberate Modification of River Systems Connectivity 146 5.3 Changes in River Flow 154 5.3.1 The Effects of Dams 154 5.3.2 Vegetation Modification and its Effect on River Flow 154 5.3.3 The Role of Invasive Plants 158 5.3.4 Land Drainage 158 5.3.5 Groundwater Exploitation 160 5.3.6 Urbanization and its Effects on River Flow 160 5.4 The Human Impact on Lake Levels 162 5.5 Changes in Groundwater Conditions 168 5.6 Water Pollution 171 5.7 Eutrophication 177 5.8 Pollution by Acid Rain 178 5.9 Deforestation and its Effects on Water Quality 180 5.10 Thermal Pollution 181 5.11 Pollution with Suspended Sediments 182 5.12 Marine Pollution 182 Guide to Reading 185 6 Human Agency i