Heat Stress Tolerance in Plants (inbunden)
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Heat Stress Tolerance in Plants (inbunden)

Heat Stress Tolerance in Plants

Physiological, Molecular and Genetic Perspectives

Inbunden Engelska, 2020-02-13
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Demystifies the genetic, biochemical, physiological, and molecular mechanisms underlying heat stress tolerance in plants Heat stress--when high temperatures cause irreversible damage to plant function or development--severely impairs the growth and yield of agriculturally important crops. As the global population mounts and temperatures continue to rise, it is crucial to understand the biochemical, physiological, and molecular mechanisms of thermotolerance to develop 'climate-smart' crops. Heat Stress Tolerance in Plants provides a holistic, cross-disciplinary survey of the latest science in this important field. Presenting contributions from an international team of plant scientists and researchers, this text examines heat stress, its impact on crop plants, and various mechanisms to modulate tolerance levels. Topics include recent advances in molecular genetic approaches to increasing heat tolerance, the potential role of biochemical and molecular markers in screening germplasm for thermotolerance, and the use of next-generation sequencing to unravel the novel genes associated with defense and metabolite pathways. This insightful book: Places contemporary research on heat stress in plants within the context of global climate change and population growth Includes diverse analyses from physiological, biochemical, molecular, and genetic perspectives Explores various approaches to increasing heat tolerance in crops of high commercial value, such as cotton Discusses the applications of plant genomics in the development of thermotolerant 'designer crops' An important contribution to the field, Heat Stress Tolerance in Plants is an invaluable resource for scientists, academics, students, and researchers working in fields of pulse crop biochemistry, physiology, genetics, breeding, and biotechnology.
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DR. SHABIR HUSSAIN WANI is Senior Assistant Professor, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Mountain Research Centre for Field Crops, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir, India. DR. VINAY KUMAR is Assistant Professor, Department of Biotechnology, Modern College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Ganeshkhind, Pune, India, and a Visiting Faculty, Department of Environmental Sciences, Savitribai Phule University, Pune, India.


List of Contributors xiii Foreword xix About the Book xxi About the Editor xxiii 1 Heat Tolerance in Cotton: Morphological, Physiological, and Genetic Perspectives 1 Muhammad Tehseen Azhar, Shabir Hussain Wani, Muhammad Tanees Chaudhary, Tariq Jameel, Parwinder Kaur, and Xiongming Du 1.1 Introduction 1 1.1.1 Morphological and Physiological Traits 2 Seedling and Root Growth 3 Stomatal Conductance 3 Cell Membrane Thermostability 4 Canopy Temperature 5 Chlorophyll Content 6 1.1.2 Genetics and Molecular Basis of Heat Tolerance in Cotton 8 1.1.3 Conventional Breeding Approaches 9 1.1.4 Modern Molecular Breeding Approaches 10 1.2 Conclusion and Future Prospects 12 References 12 2 Seed Priming as a Method to Generate Heat-stress Tolerance in Plants: A Minireview 23 Aditya Banerjee and Aryadeep Roychoudhury 2.1 Introduction 23 2.2 Mechanism of Heat Stress Injury in Plants 24 2.3 Seed Priming Generating Heat-stress Tolerance 26 2.4 Conclusion 27 2.5 Future Perspectives 27 Acknowledgments 28 References 28 3 How Effective are Stress-associated Proteins in Augmenting Thermotolerance? 33 Ines Karmous and Sandeep Kumar Verma 3.1 Introduction 33 3.1.1 Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) 34 3.1.2 Proline 36 3.1.3 Dehydrins (DHNs) 37 3.1.4 Role of Metabolic Proteins in Thermotolerance 37 3.2 Conclusion 40 References 40 4 Biochemical and Molecular Markers: Unraveling Their Potential Role in Screening Germplasm for Thermotolerance 47 Ahmed Ismail, Kareem A. Mosa, Muna A. Ali, and Mohamed Helmy 4.1 Introduction 47 4.2 Types of Markers 48 4.3 Morphological Markers 49 4.4 Molecular Markers 49 4.5 Biochemical Markers 53 4.6 Quantitative Trait Loci for Plant Thermotolerance 54 4.7 Plant Metabolites Under Heat Stress 61 4.8 Antioxidant Enzymes and Heat Stress 63 4.9 Conclusion 68 References 70 5 Alteration in Carbohydrate Metabolism Modulates Thermotolerance of Plant under Heat Stress 77 Roseline Xalxo, Bhumika Yadu, Jipsi Chandra, Vibhuti Chandrakar, and S. Keshavkant 5.1 Introduction 77 5.1.1 Heat Stress and Thermotolerance 79 Morphological Alterations 80 Anatomical Alterations 80 Physiological and Biochemical Modifications 81 Cell Membrane Integrity 82 5.2 Carbohydrate as Protectives Molecules 83 5.2.1 Osmolyte 83 5.2.2 Thermoprotectant 84 5.3 Carbohydrates as Signaling Molecules 85 5.3.1 Reproductive Cell Development 85 5.3.2 Seed Development 86 5.3.3 Seed Germination and Yield Loss 87 5.4 Adverse Impacts of Heat Stress 87 5.4.1 Photosynthesis 87 Altered Carbon Assimilation 88 Chlorophyll Breakdown 88 5.4.2 Major and Minor Carbohydrate Metabolism 89 5.4.3 Expression of Regulatory Genes 89 5.4.4 Enzyme Activity 90 5.5 Mechanisms Involved in Thermotolerance 93 5.5.1 Glucose and Heat-stress Tolerance 93 5.5.2 Sucrose and Heat-stress Tolerance 94 5.5.3 Fructan and Heat-stress Tolerance 95 5.5.4 Trehalose and Heat-stress Tolerance 96 5.5.5 Raffinose and Heat-stress Tolerance 97 5.6 Genetic Approaches/Strategies for Improving Thermotolerance 97 5.6.1 Genetically Modified Crop Production 97 5.6.2 Transgenic Strategies 99 5.7 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 102 References 103 6 Transcriptomics to Dissect Plant Responses to Heat Stress 117 Sagar Satish Datir 6.1 Introduction 117 6.1.1 Transcriptome Sequencing and Expression Profiling of Genes Involved in Heat Stress Response 119 Rice (Oryza sativa L.) 119 Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) 123 Maize (Zea mays L.) 125 Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) 126 Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) 128 Brassica rapa L. 129 Banana (Musa acuminate Colla) 130 6.2 Conclusions 131 References 132 7 Proteomics as a Tool for Characterizing the Alteration in Pathways Associated with Defense an