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Risk Communication - A Handbook for Communicating Environmental, Safety, and Health Risks, Sixth Editionav Re Lundgren789
THE ESSENTIAL HANDBOOK FOR EFFECTIVELY COMMUNICATING ENVIRONMENTAL, SAFETY, AND HEALTH RISKS, FULLY REVISED AND UPDATED Now in its sixth edition, Risk Communication has proven to be a valuable resource for people who are tasked with the responsibility of understanding how to apply the most current approaches to care, consensus, and crisis communication. The sixth edition updates the text with fresh and illustrative examples, lessons learned, and recent research as well as provides advice and guidelines for communicating risk information in the United States and other countries. The authors help readers understand the basic theories and practices of risk communication and explain how to plan an effective strategy and put it into action. The book also contains information on evaluating risk communication efforts and explores how to communicate risk during and after an emergency. Risk Communication brings together in one resource proven scientific research with practical, hands-on guidance from practitioners with over 30 years of experience in the field. This important guide: Provides new examples of communication plans in government and industry, use of social media, dealing with "fake news," and new digital tools for stakeholder involvement and crisis communications Contains a new chapter on partnerships which covers topics such as assigning roles and expectations, ending partnerships, and more Presents real-world case studies with key lessons all risk communicators can apply. Written for engineers, scientists, professors and students, land use planners, public health practitioners, communication specialists, consultants, and regulators, the revised sixth edition of Risk Communication is the must-have guide for those who communicate risks.
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REGINA E. LUNDGREN is an independent consultant in risk communication, public involvement, and science and strategic communication. For more than 30 years, she has specialized in communicating environmental, safety, and health risks to lay audiences. You can learn more at her website at http://www.rlriskcom.com. ANDREA H. MCMAKIN is a communication specialist at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington. For more than 30 years, she has directed, taught, advised on, and carried out the communication of scientific, technical, and risk-related information.
List of Figures XVII List of Tables XIX Preface XXI About the Authors XXIII 1 INTRODUCTION 1 To Begin 2 The Risk Communication Process 6 Audiences, Situations, and Purposes 8 References 8 PART I UNDERSTANDING RISK COMMUNICATION 2 APPROACHES TO COMMUNICATING RISK 11 Cross-Cutting Risk Communication Approaches 12 Care Communication Approaches 20 Consensus Communication Approach 23 Crisis Communication Approaches 24 Summary 26 References 26 Additional Resources 28 3 LAWS THAT MANDATE RISK COMMUNICATION 29 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act 30 Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act 31 Executive Order 12898, Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations 34 Executive Order 13045, Reduce Environmental Health and Safety Risks to Children 34 Food and Drug Administration Regulations on Prescription Drug Communication 35 National Environmental Policy Act 35 Natural Resource Damage Assessment 36 Occupational Safety and Health Act 37 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 39 Risk Management Plan Rule 39 Privacy Rule 39 Other Government Inducements 40 Summary 42 References 42 Additional Resources 43 4 CONSTRAINTS TO EFFECTIVE RISK COMMUNICATION 45 Constraints on the Communicator 45 Constraints from the Audience 55 Constraints for Both Communicator and Audience 63 Summary 65 References 65 Additional Resources 67 5 ETHICAL ISSUES 69 Social Ethics 70 Organizational Ethics 77 Personal Ethics 82 Summary 85 References 85 Additional Resources 86 6 PRINCIPLES OF RISK COMMUNICATION 89 Principles of Process 90 Principles of Presentation 95 Principles for Comparing Risks 100 Summary 104 References 104 Additional Resources 105 PART II PLANNING THE RISK COMMUNICATION EFFORT 7 DETERMINE PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES 109 Factors That Influence Purpose and Objectives 110 Reference 114 Additional Resources 115 8 ANALYZE YOUR AUDIENCE 117 Begin with Purpose and Objectives 118 Choose a Level of Analysis 119 Determine Key Audience Characteristics 122 Determine How to Find Audience Analysis Information 125 Incorporate Audience Analysis Information into Risk Communication Efforts 129 References 132 Additional Resources 133 9 DEVELOP YOUR MESSAGE 135 Common Pitfalls 136 Information People Want 139 Mental Models 141 Message Mapping and Message Development Templates 144 Health Risk Communication 144 Crisis Communication 147 References 150 Additional Resource 151 10 DETERMINE THE APPROPRIATE METHODS 153 Information Materials 153 Visual Representation of Risk 155 Face-to-Face Communication 156 The News Media 158 Stakeholder Participation 160 Technology-Assisted Communication 162 Social Media 163 Partnerships 164 Additional Resources 166 11 SET A SCHEDULE 167 Legal Requirements 167 Organizational Requirements 168 The Scientific Process 169 Ongoing Activities 169 Audience Needs 170 Reference 172 12 DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION PLAN 173 What to Include in a Communication Plan 174 Developing Risk Communication Strategies 177 References 183 Additional Resources 184 PART III PUTTING RISK COMMUNICATION INTO ACTION 13 INFORMATION MATERIALS 187 Constructing Information Materials 187 Guidelines for Specific Types of Information Materials 195 References 202 Additional Resources 202 14 VISUAL REPRESENTATIONS OF RISKS 203 Design Visuals for Specific Audiences and Uses 205 Match the Visual Portrayal to the Information to Be Conveyed 207 Pretest Graphics with Those Who Will Use Them 209 Using Visuals to Personalize Risk Information 213 Comparing Risks in Visual Formats 213 Static versus Interactive Visuals 216 Depicting Probability and Uncertainty 218 Warning Labels 227 Consider Using Action Levels 230 Ethical Portrayal of Risk Information 232 Using Visual Information in Group Decision Making