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Human survival depends on the availability of clean air, water, and food and on the welfare of plants and animals. However, anthropogenic and naturally occurring chemicals can cause adverse effects on living organisms and ecological processes. Environmental Toxicology: Biological and Health Effects of Pollutants, Third Edition presents fundamental information on the effects of environmental toxicants on living systems. It focuses on the chemical and biological characteristics of major pollutants found in the air, water, and soil and relates them to the health and well being of humans, animals, and plants. An Indispensable Reference on Air, Soil, & Water Pollutants and Their Impact on Living Systems Surveying the environmental and health changes that have occurred in recent decades, the book discusses the sources, metabolism, and damage process of toxicants, and the environmental, biological, and nutritional factors that may influence toxicity. It looks at natural defense systems, including the mechanisms for detoxification-such as endogenous antioxidants and free radical scavenging enzymes-on a cellular level. The text examines the major toxicants: EPA criteria air pollutants, environmental fluoride, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), environmental metals and metalloids involved in soil and water pollution, and pesticides and related material such as PCBs and dioxins. It then addresses their relationship with endocrine disruption and environmental cancer. This comprehensive approach offers insight into the interaction of various chemical agents with DNA. Fully revised and expanded, the third edition of this popular book includes new and updated material as well as a new chapter on occupational toxicology. Appendices cover the process of ecological risk assessment, carcinogens, and PCB nomenclature. Based on research from more than 35 years of teaching environmental toxicology and related courses, this textbook is a useful resource for students, professionals, and researchers interested in the effects of pollutants on living systems. What's New in This Edition A new chapter on occupational toxicology, covering indoor air quality, chemicals in the workplace, nanoparticle exposure, and more An updated chapter on environmental changes and health, including significant environmental changes that have occurred since the last edition An updated chapter on environmental cancer, including changes in death rates of respiratory cancers New material on the importance of nitrous oxide (N2O) in stratospheric ozone layer depletion An expanded discussion of environmental disasters
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Praise for the Second Edition This book is very well presented. A particular strength is the use of many examples of major pollution events and case studies, as well as an actual ecological impact assessment study in the appendix. Another strength is that review questions are given at the end of each chapter. ... Overall, this is an excellent text on the subject, particularly for teachers and students of the basics of environmental studies. -Marinus L. Otte, University College Dublin, in The Geographical Journal, Vol. 172, Issue 2, June 2006
Dr. Ming-Ho Yu is professor emeritus at Huxley College of the Environment, Western Washington University. Dr. Yu served as the vice president and president of the International Society for Fluoride Research (ISFR) from 1986 to 1996 and is the associate editor of Fluoride, the official publication of the society. He is a founding coeditor of Environmental Sciences, a journal published in Tokyo, Japan. Dr. Yu is the author of Environmental Toxicology: Impacts of Environmental Toxicants on Living Systems and Environmental Toxicology: Biological and Health Effects of Pollutants, Second Edition and coauthor of Introduction to Environmental Toxicology: Molecular Substructures to Ecological Landscapes, published by CRC Press. Dr. Humio Tsunoda is professor emeritus at Iwate Medical University in Morioka, Japan. He received a Green Cross Award from the Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, and awards for distinguished service from the Ministry of Construction, the Ministry of Labor, the Japanese Association of Rural Medicine, the Japan Society for Atmospheric Environment, and the Japanese Society for Occupational Health. In 2010, Dr. Tsunoda received the Order of the Sacred Treasure, Gold Rays with Neck Ribbon from the government of Japan. Dr. Masashi Tsunoda is an associate professor at the Department of Preventive Medicine, Kitasato University School of Medicine in Japan. He is a councilor of the Japan Society for Biomedical Research on Trace Elements, an editorial board member of the International Society for Fluoride Research, and a board member of the Japanese Society of Immunotoxicology. He is coeditor of Kitasato Medical Journal and a guest reviewer of Toxicological Sciences.
Introduction Study of Environmental Toxicology Importance of Environmental Toxicology as an Area of Science Introduction to this Book Environmental Changes and Health Our Changing Environment Air Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Water Pollution Soil Pollution The Changing Diseases Review Questions References Occurrence of Toxicants Introduction Visible Smoke or Smog Offensive Odors Agricultural Damage Intoxication of Animals Injuries to Humans Chronic and Acute Effects References Toxic Action of Pollutants Introduction Effects on Plants Mammalian Organisms Mechanism of Toxic Action Review Questions References Factors Affecting Xenobiotic Action Introduction Physiological Properties Dose or Concentration Duration and Mode of Exposure Environmental Factors Interaction Biological Factors Nutritional Factors Review Questions References Biotransformation: Metabolism of Xenobiotics Introduction Types of Biotransformation Mechanism of Biotransformation Characteristics of Biotransformation Consequence of Biotransformation Factors Affecting Biotransformation Characteristics of the Cytochrome P450s Review Questions References Responses to Environmental Toxicants Introduction Responses of Plants Responses of Humans and Animals Review Questions References Air Pollution: Inorganic Gases Introduction Sulfur Dioxide Nitrogen Dioxide Ozone Carbon Monoxide Review Questions References Air Pollution: Particulate Matter Introduction Characteristics of Particulate Matter Formation of Particulates Health Effects Silica Beryllium Asbestos Lead Review Questions References Environmental Fluoride Introduction Occurrence and Forms of Fluoride Industrial Sources of Fluoride Pollution Effects on Plants Effects on Animals Effects on Humans Biochemical Effect of Fluoride Nutrition and Fluoride Toxicity Review Questions References Volatile Organic Compounds Introduction Sources Petroleum Hydrocarbons Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Review Questions References Soil and Water Pollution: Environmental Metals and Metalloids Introduction Lead Cadmium Mercury Nickel Arsenic Review Questions References Pesticides and Related Materials Introduction Insecticides Herbicides Polychlorinated Biphenyls Polybrominated Biphenyls Dioxin Review Questions References Occupational Toxicology Introduction Changing Workplace Environment Threshold Limit Values Biological Exposure Indices Respiratory Toxicity Other Occupational Diseases Caused by Toxic Substances Recent Chemicals of Concern Review Questions References Endocrine Disruption Introduction Review of Hormonal Function Characteristics of Endocrine Disrupters Mode of Action Examples of Endocrine Disruption Hormonal Cancers Testing Estrogenicity Review Questions References Mutagenic Pollutants Introduction Types of Mutation Effects of Mutation Induction of Mutation Review Questions References Environmental Cancer Introduction Causes of Cancer Three Stages in the Development of Cancer Metastasis Classification of Carcinogens Metabolism of Chemical Carcinogens Respiratory Cancer Death Rates DNA Repair Review Questions References Appendix 1: Ecological Risk Assessment Appendix 2: 11th Report on Carcinogens Appendix 3: List of Cigarette Smoke Carcinogens Appendix 4: Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Nomenclature Index