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Political Violence in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
From Holy War to Modern Terror
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Jonathan Fine's timely study is the first comparison of holy wars in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. His work is essential to understand and counters the misinterpretation of religious sources and ideas to serve political agendas. -- Rohan Gunaratna, author of "Inside al Qaeda: Global Network of Terror" Dr. Jonathan Fine provides a crucial overview of political violence in a comparative way. Using the tools of a historian and a political scientist, Dr. Fine analyzes the phenomenon of terrorism in various context and the origins of `holy' violence in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. A very timely and important book. -- Boaz Ganor, co-founder and executive director, The International Institute for Counter-Terrorism (ICT), Herzliyya, Israel A brilliant analysis with original ideas that will be of great interest. A work that challenges conventions and commonplaces. A masterpiece. -- Jose J. Sanmartin, University of Alicante, Spain Political Violence in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam is a major contribution to our understanding of the relationship between the three major monotheistic religions and violent conflict. Exhibiting a deep knowledge of the subject matter as evidenced in extensive use of primary sources, and combining historical analysis with an interdisciplinary perspective, Jonathan Fine's comprehensive, informative, and balanced study will appeal to casual readers and specialists alike. -- Assaf Moghadam, author of The Globalization of Martyrdom: Al Qaeda, Salafi Jihad, and the Diffusion of Suicide Attacks The strengths of Fine's monumental and ambitious study are its innovative methodological approaches and its impressive first-hand and secondary sources. It deals symmetrically and fairly with the three religions; and its comparative inter-disciplinary nature adds to its analytical value. It is therefore a welcome addition to the existing literature. -- Rami Ginat, Department of Political Studies, Bar-Ilan University, Israel Jonathan Fine has composed a comprehensive effort, in both breadth and depth, to bridge the textual and ideological foundations of Western religions with the modern religiously-motivated terrorism that emerged from those traditions. His erudite analysis crosses academic fields and draws together disparate theoretical lenses to form an ambitious survey of one of the most pressing challenges of our time. -- Ron E. Hassner, author of Religion on the Battlefield
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Jonathan Fine is a senior researcher at the International Institute for Counter Terrorism and an assistant professor at the Lauder School of Government at the Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya).
General Introduction Part One: The Origins of Political Violence and 'Terror' Introduction to Part One Chapter 1: Ancient and Medieval Concepts 1.1 Terror and Political Violence: How to Address the Topic? 1.2 The Ancient Near East 1.3 The Ancient Hebrews 1.4 The Greco-Roman World 1.5 Medieval Europe 1.6 The Arab World Chapter 2: The Rise of Modern Secular-Agenda Political Violence 2.1 Revolutionizing the Term 'Terrorism' 2.2 Post-French Revolution Terminology 2.3 The Use of the Terms 'Terror' and 'Horror' in Modern Literature 2.4 Post-World War Two Guerrilla and Terrorist Organizations 2.5 Terrorism and the Media 2.6 The "Secular Formative Text" 2.7 Enemy-Definition in Western Culture and its Concept in Secular Terrorist Organizations and Guerrilla Movements 2.8 Secular Middle Eastern Groups 2.9 The Terminology of 'Terror' & 'Terrorism' in a Historical Perspective Chapter 3: The Rise of Modern Religious-Agenda Political Violence 3.1 Religion and Political Violence in Early-Modern Political Thought 3.2 Political Science, International Relations, and Religion: Social Movement - Theory, Resource Mobilization Theory, Primordialism, Constructivism and Instrumentalism 3.3 Comparative Religion 3.4 Current Research on Holy War in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam 3.5 Current Research on Modern Jewish, Christian and Muslim Fundamentalism 3.6 The "Formative Religious Text": between Personality - Cult and Text Cult: a Different Approach 3.7 Enemy-Perception by Radical Religious Groups p. 74 3.8 Secular and Religious Texts on a Comparative Level: "Who is the -Enemey?" Part Two: The Early Origins of Holy War in Monotheism:Judaism, Christianity, and Islam Introduction to Part Two Chapter 4: The Origins of Holy War in Judaism 4.1 Holy War Terminology in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam 4.2 The Hebrew Bible 4.3 Classic Jewish Interpretations: the Mishna 4.4 Classic Jewish Interpretations: the Babylonian and Palestinian Talmuds 4.5 Medieval Commentators: Rashi, Maimonides and Nahmanides 4.6 The Fate of Amalek and the Question of Total Eradication 4.7 Prohibition against National Revival by Force 4.8 The Midrash Interpretation: The Ill Fate of the Tribe of Ephraim 4.9 Apocryphal Literature: Enemy Definition and War in the War Scroll 4.10 Preliminary Changes in Jewish Interpretation towards the Three Vows: Rabbi Yosef Chaim Chapter 5: The Origins of Holy War in Christianity 5.1 Unique Attributes of Holy War in Christianity 5.2 The Impact of Classic Sources 5.3 The Impact of Jewish Sources 5.4 Concepts of War and Peace in the New Testament 5.5 Government and State in the New Testament 5.6 The Concept of Just War in the Christian Roman Empire: FromConstantine to St. Augustine 5.7 Holy War and the Crusade 5.8 Thomas of Aquinas Chapter 6: The Origins of Holy War in Islam 6.1 The Concept of Warfare in the Quran and the Meaning of Jihad 6.2 Post-Quranic Interpretations of the Term Jihad 6.3 Attitudes to Non-Muslims and the Concept of Dhimmi during Islam's Expansion Part Three: From Holy War to Modern Terror Introduction to Part Three Chapter 7: The Rise of Modern Religious Violence in Judaism 7. 1 The Rise of Modern Nationalism and Anti-Semitism 7. 2 The British Mandate and the Impact of Rabbi Avraham Kook 7. 3 The Anti-Zionist Orthodox Camp 7. 4 The Impact of the Holocaust and Rabbi Moshe Yoel Teitelbaum 7. 5 Religious Violence Following the Establishment of the State of Israel 7. 6 The Impact of the Six Day War and the Yom Kippur War 7. 7 Reclaiming the Temple Mount 7. 8 The Six Day War and the Anti-Zionist Orthodox 7. 9 From Crisis to Violence: The Impact of the Camp David Accords, 1979 7.10 Rabbi Meir Kahane and the Kach Movement p.183 7.11 The Jewish Underground (ha Machteret ha Yehudit) and Yehuda Etzion 7.12 From the Oslo Agreements to the Second Intifada: 1993 - 2000 7.13 The Evacuation of Gaza: 2005 7.14 'Torat ha Melech' ('The King's Way') and its Impact 7.15 'Price Tag' - 'Tag Mechir' Chapter 8: The