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Extended Confiscation in Criminal Law
National, European and International Perspectives1049
This book provides a comprehensive analysis of the measure of extended confiscation as an instrument of criminal policy. National and international regimes on confiscation are viewed from a multi-faceted perspective, and the main focus is the framework of the European Union. The book begins by examining extended confiscation from the national perspective, presenting the substantive criteria for this power of confiscation. It focuses on three main jurisdictions - England and Wales, Germany and Sweden - and explores how domestic legislation is drafted and applied in their differing models. A key point of the analysis focuses on Directive 2014/42/EU on the Freezing and Confiscation of Instrumentalities and Proceeds of Crime in the European Union, which aims at harmonising the national powers of confiscation. This book explores whether such measures really lead to more efficiency, or if other reforms may be more effective. An overriding issue is whether increased powers of extended confiscation strike the right balance between the interest of law enforcement and the protection of human rights. The second part of the book deals with the international perspective. The notion of extended confiscation is set in the broader context of transnational cooperation regarding the confiscation of assets. It examines the requirements and the handling of such cases on the basis of the many instruments on judicial assistance or mutual recognition of judicial decisions from the United Nations, the Council of Europe and the EU. It also explores how the current legal framework for international cooperation in confiscation matters functions. The practice of cross-border tracing and seizure of illegal assets and cooperation regarding the recognition and execution on final confiscation orders is looked at. This book enhances the reader's understanding of the strategy of confiscating criminal assets and contributes to a deeper knowledge of the recent developments regarding extended confiscation. It gives some answers to the questions of how the confiscation regimes could be improved, and which changes are proportionate to the objectives pursued.
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Fler böcker av Malin Thunberg Schunke
Dr Malin Thunberg Schunke, an Associate Professor in Criminal Law at the University of Uppsala, holds an LLD and an LLM in Criminal Law. She has been an Apprentice Judge and an Assistant Prosecutor in Stockholm.
Preface - v Table of Cases - xiii List of Abbreviations - xix PART I. INTRODUCTION Chapter 1. Background and Scope of the Study - 3 1.1. Go for the Money!: The Development and Expansion of a New Law Enforcement Strategy - 3 1.2. International and National Legislative Action - 6 1.3. On the Subject Matter - 9 1.3.1. The Overriding Purpose of the Study - 9 1.3.2. The Different Stages of Confiscation - 10 1.3.3. A Note on Terminology - 12 1.4. The Perspectives of the Study and Delimitations - 15 1.4.1. National and International Perspectives - 15 1.4.2. Delimitations - 16 1.5. An Outline of the Different Parts and Chapters - 17 PART II. SUBSTANTIVE PROVISIONS ON EXTENDED CONFISCATION Chapter 2. Legislative Action by the EU - 25 2.1. FD 2005/212/JHA - 25 2.1.1. Introduction - 25 2.1.2. Extended Confiscation - 26 2.1.3. Third Party Confiscation and Rules on Procedural Rights - 28 2.2. Reviews of the European Confiscation Powers - 29 2.3. Directive 2014/42/EU - 33 2.3.1. The General Framework of the Directive - 33 2.3.2. The Provision on Ordinary Confiscation - 35 2.3.3. The Provision on Extended Confiscation - 37 2.3.4. Third Party Confiscation - 39 2.3.5. Procedural Safeguards - 39 Chapter 3. Legislation in England and Wales - 43 3.1. The Development of the Legislation on Extended Confiscation in England and Wales - 43 3.2. Overview of POCA 2002 - 45 3.3. Confiscation Orders Pursuant to Part 2 of POCA 2002 - 49 3.3.1. Introduction - 49 3.3.2. A Twin Track Confiscation System - 51 3.4. Criminal Lifestyle Confiscation - 53 3.4.1. Basic Requirements - 53 3.4.2. The Determination of Benefit in Criminal Lifestyle Cases - 54 220.127.116.11. The Statutory Assumptions - 54 18.104.22.168. The Burden and Standard of Proof - 57 22.214.171.124. Benefit and the Available Amount - 58 3.5. Some Special Features of the English Confiscation Procedure - 65 3.6. A Commentary on the English Confiscation Regime on Lifestyle Confiscation - 67 3.6.1. A Draconian but Efficient Confiscation Regime? - 67 3.6.2. The Classification of Defendants as Lifestyle Offenders - 70 3.6.3. The Assessment of Benefit on the Basis of the `Criminal Lifestyle' Assumptions - 71 3.6.4. Lack of Judicial Discretion - 74 3.6.5. The Burden of Proof on a Defendant - 76 3.6.6. Confiscation Orders and the ECHR - 78 126.96.36.199. Case-law from the ECtHR - 78 188.8.131.52. Confiscation Orders and the Human Rights Act 1998 - 85 184.108.40.206. Remarks on the Compatibility of the Regime with the ECHR - 86 3.6.7. Difficulties Regarding the Enforcement of Confiscation Orders - 87 Chapter 4. Legislation in Germany - 91 4.1. The Development of the Measure of Extended Confiscation in German Law - 91 4.2. Generally on the Confiscation Regime - 97 4.3. Extended Confiscation in German Law - 99 4.3.1. Basic Substantive Rules and the Procedural Framework - 99 4.3.2. The Triggering Offences and the Scope for Extended Confiscation - 102 4.3.3. The Evidentiary Standard for Extended Confiscation - 104 220.127.116.11. Legal Provision and the Legislative Works - 104 18.104.22.168. Decision by the Bundesgerichtshof in 1994 - 106 22.214.171.124. Decision by the Bundesverfassungsgericht in 2004 - 108 126.96.36.199. The Application of the Evidentiary Standard in Case-law - 110 4.4. A Commentary on the German Regime of Extended Confiscation - 113 4.4.1. A Complex and Partly Controversial Asset Recovery Regime - 113 4.4.2. The Interpretation and Application of the Evidentiary Standard - 114 4.4.3. The Present Scope of the Legislation - 117 4.4.4. The Proposal for a New German Provision on Extended Confiscation - 118 4.4.5. The Proposal for a New Form of Non-Conviction-Based Confiscation - 122 4.4.6. The Practice of Administrative "Praventive Gewinnabschoepfung" - 126 Chapter 5. Legislation in Sweden - 129 5.1. The Development of the Measure of Extended Confiscation in Swedish Law - 129 5.2. Generally on the Regime for Confiscation in Sweden - 131 5.3. The Provision on Extended Confiscation in Sw