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- WIT Press
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- 52:B&W 6.14 x 9.21in or 234 x 156mm (Royal 8vo) Case Laminate on White w/Gloss Lam
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High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Disposal
A Global Challenge2109
This book describes all the techniques and procedures required for designing and constructing a repository for hazardous waste and for assessing its function in short- and long-term perspectives. It provides new aspects on disposal of such waste, especially HLW, by making it clear that, in contrast to the common belief that the rock itself it an effective barrier to the transport of contaminants like radionuclides, tectonics and long-term changes in the rock structure will make it serve only as a 'mechanical support to the chemical apparatus', while effective retention of the hazardous elements is solely provided by properly designed and manufactured containers ('canisters'). This brings the longevity of the containers in to focus, which in turn, requires that all degrading physics/chemical processes are considered. This occupies a considerable part of the book.
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Roland Pusch (PhD Geotechnique, PhD Geology) is the author or co-author of several books on rock geomechanics, has been a professor of rock and soil mechanics, and has served on the editorial boards of international journals. Long involved in research on clay buffers for containment of nuclear waste, his current research is on their longevity. Raymond N. Yong, CQ, MSc, MEng, PhD, CEng, FRS(C), is Emeritus Professors of McGill University. He has been the recipient of the Killam Prize (Canada's highest scientific prize), the ASTM's Charles Dudley Prize, the Canadian Geotechnical Society's Legget Prize, and the Canadian Environmental Achievement Award (Lifetime Achievement), from Environment Canada. A Fellow of the Royal Society Canada and a Chevalier de l'Ordre National du Quebec, he is an authority on contaminated soil and its mitigation, an international consultant on hazardous waste disposal, and the author or co-author of numerous books and papers in the field. He was involved in the early research on clay barriers for containment of radioactive waste. Masashi Nakano, PhD, Professor Emeritus, The University of Tokyo, is the recipient of the 2007 International award from the International Society of Paddy and Water Environmental Engineering and the 2009 Groundwater award from the Japan Association of Groundwater Hydrology. He has written numerous papers in the field of soil physics. He has served with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency and its predecessors and has been involved with planning for the disposal of radioactive waste in Japan since the beginning. His current research involves clay science.
Contents Chapter 1 Introduction Highly radioactive waste; Radioactivity; Heat production; National and international work; Principles for disposal of HLW, operational time, depths; The multiple barrier principle; Operational time; Depth; State-of art assessment of rock types for disposal of HLW; Crystalline rock; Argillaceous rock including clastic clay; Salt rock; Options for HLW disposal Chapter 2 Geological basis What is the role of the host rock for the performance of an HLW repository?; Rock types considered for HLW disposal; Crystalline rock; Argillaceous rock; Salt rock; Rock structure; Definitions; Categorization of structural elements; Constitution and evolution of the shallow earth crust - the far field; Origin of small-scale discontinuities; Evolution of large-scale rock structure; Impact of earthquakes and glaciation on the large-scale rock structure and hydraulic performance; Near-field rock; Roles with respect to the function of engineered barriers; Impact of repository construction on the performance of the near-field rock; Impact of deposition holes on the performance of the surrounding rock; Impact on the rock by boring and blasting tunnels and holes - EDZ; The constitution of different rock types hosting repositories; Crystalline rock; Salt and argillaceous rock, and clastic clay Chapter 3 Engineered barriers How is release of radionuclides hindered?; HLW; Canisters; Design and material; Canister longevity; Buffer; The role of clays in a repository; Smectite minerals; Hydrated smectite minerals; Maturation of the buffer; The hydraulic conductivity of smectite clays; The gas conductivity of smectite clays; The ion diffusion capacity of smectite clays; The stress/strain properties of smectite clays Chapter 4 Performance of barriers Which are the most important functions of the barriers?; What impact does the confining rock have on the engineered barriers?; Tectonic impact; Structural implications for earthquakes and large rock strain; Numerical modelling of large-scale strain; Numerical modelling of small-scale strain; Near-field stability issues; Time-dependent strain; Impact of glaciation on repository rock; Canister performance;General; Performance of buffer clay; Hydraulic conductivity; Accuracy; Expandability Chapter 5 Long-term performance of the engineered barriers Canisters; Buffer; Conceptual model of the evolution of the buffer; Maturation of the SKB buffer; Theoretical modelling of buffer maturation; Modelling of buffer evolution - the "Codes"; Accuracy of thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) prediction; Anomalies caused by instrumentation; Changes in buffer constitution and properties by hydrothermal processes; Basic; Natural analogues; THMC laboratory tests; Tentative conclusions; Modelling of conversion of smectite to non-expanding minerals; Conclusive remarks concerning mineralogical changes in buffer clay; Rheological issues; Impact of physical processes on the buffer performance Chapter 6 Repository concepts for HLW Principles; Crystalline rock; General; SKB's concept KBS-3V; Closing the repository; Borehole plugging; SKB's concept KBS-3H; Other concepts; Argillaceous rock; General; Examples of national concepts; Salt rock; General; Description of disposal concepts; Function of the repository; Detailed design principles; Performance; Repositories in crystalline and argillaceous rock; Repositories in salt rock; Sealing of deep boreholes; The SKB/POSIVA study; Tight seals Chapter 7Alternative concepts General; Canisters; Identified risks; The HIPOW canister; Buffer; Criteria set for safe function of the buffer; Identified risks for SKB type concepts; Historical overview; Buffer candidates; Longevity; Impact of erosion on the buffer; Stiffening, an issue of fundamental importance for the ultimate selection of a suitable candidate buffer; Ranking of candidate buffers; Buffer blocks; Other buffer components, backfills; Buffer geometry issues; Alternative orientation of d