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- Friedman, Steven (contributions)/Naciri, Rabea (contributions)/Baviskar, Amita (contributions)/Layton, Michael D. (contributions)/Rodriguez, Ana Maria Sanchez (contributions)/Fuentes, Claudio A. (contributions)/Carrete, Beatriz Campillo (contributions)/Franco, Jennifer C. (contributions)/Friedman, S
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Citizen Action and National Policy Reform
Making Change Happen422
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How does citizen activism win changes in national policy? Which factors help to make myriad efforts by diverse actors add up to reform? What is needed to overcome setbacks, and to consolidate the smaller victories? These questions need answers. Aid agencies have invested heavily in supporting civil society organizations as change agents in fledgling and established democracies alike. Evidence gathered by donors, NGOs and academics demonstrates how advocacy and campaigning can reconfigure power relations and transform governance structures at the local and global levels. In the rush to go global or stay local, however, the national policy sphere was recently neglected. Today, there is growing recognition of the key role of champions of change inside national governments, and the potential of their engagement with citizen activists outside. These advances demand a better understanding of how national and local actors can combine approaches to simultaneously work the levers of change, and how their successes relate to actors and institutions at the international level. This book brings together eight studies of successful cases of citizen activism for national policy changes in South Africa, Morocco, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Turkey, India and the Philippines. They detail the dynamics and strategies that have led to the introduction, change or effective implementation of policies responding to a range of rights deficits. Drawing on influential social science theory about how political and social change occurs, the book brings new empirical insights to bear on it, both challenging and enriching current understandings.
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'Gaventa and McGee offer ideas, inspiration and hope to activists everywhere. Indispensable.' Duncan McGreen, Oxfam House 'The editors bring together a remarkably diverse array of highly original case studies, capped off with a compelling and accessible analytical synthesis of lessons learned.' Jonathan Fox, author of Accountability Politics: Power and Voice in Rural Mexico 'This book provides reasons to hope that citizens can effect significant policy change, tangible lessons in doing so effectively and realistic assessments of the potential pitfalls.' Ingrid Srinath, CIVICUS
John Gaventa is a Research Professor and Fellow in the Participation, Power and Social Change Team at the Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex. A political sociologist by training, he has written widely on issues of power, citizen action, participation and democracy, including the award winning Power and Powerlessness in an Appalachian Valley (1980) and Global Citizen Action (2001). He is the director of the Development Research Centre on Citizenship, Participation and Accountability. Rosemary McGee is a Research Fellow in the Participation, Power and Social Change Team at the Institute of Development Studies since 1999. She has extensive work experience in policy and programme posts in the international development NGO sector.
Preface List of Abbreviations Introduction: Making Change Happen: Citizen action and national policy reform - John Gaventa and Rosemary McGee 1. Gaining Comprehensive AIDS Treatment in South Africa: the extraordinary 'ordinary' - Steven Friedman 2. Redistributing land in the Philippines: social movements and state reformers - Saturnino M. Borras Jr. and Jennifer C. Franco 3. Reducing Maternal Mortality in Mexico: building vertical alliances for change - Michael D. Layton, Beatriz Campillo Carrete, Ireri Ablanedo Terrazas, Ana Maria Sanchez Rodriguez 4. Protecting the Child in Chile: civil Society and the state - Claudio Fuentes 5. Winning the Right to Information in India: Is knowledge power? - Amita Baviskar 6. Democratising Urban Policy in Brazil: participation and the right to the city - Leonardo Avritzer 7. Winning Women's Rights in Morocco: cultural Adaptations and Islamic family law - Alexandra Pittman and Rabea Naciri 8. Re/Forming Laws to Secure Women's Rights in Turkey: The campaign on the Penal Code - Pinar Ilkkaracan