Functional Insulin Treatment (häftad)
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Häftad (Paperback / softback)
Antal sidor
2nd ed.
Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. K
K M Nelson
Berger, M. (foreword)/Skyler, J.S. (foreword)/Berger, M. (foreword)/Skyler, J.S. (foreword)
10 Tables, black and white; 29 Illustrations, black and white; XX, 218 p. 29 illus.
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1 Paperback / softback
Functional Insulin Treatment (häftad)

Functional Insulin Treatment

Principles, Teaching Approach and Practice

Häftad Engelska, 1996-01-01
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Functional Insulin Treatment (FIT) is the most effective method of treatment for type 1(insulin-dependent) diabetes available today. Whether with an insulin pump or with multiple daily injections, the diabetic patient trained in FIT is able to dose his insulin on the basis of actual fuction so that he achieves near-normoglycemia and the freedom to eat when, what and how much he wants. The goal of FIT is to adapt the therapy to the lifestyle of the patient. This book creates a common basis for communication among therapists (physicians, nurses, dietitians, diabetes educators) and patients involved in FIT. It clearly defines the principles of the treatment and describes the contents, media and techniques of a practical program for training patients to carry it out.
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1 Introduction.- 2 Overview of the Phases of Rehabilitation in Persons with Type I (Insulin-Dependent) Diabetes.- 2.1 Intermezzo 1: A Strategy for Failure - or How Not to Educate Patients.- 3 Basic Diabetes Education (Phase I of Rehabilitation).- 3.1 Insulin Action in Healthy Persons; Insulin Deficiency.- 3.2 Diet.- 3.2.1 Goals of Dietary Counseling.- 3.2.2 Estimating the Carbohydrate Content of Food.- 3.2.3 Prandial Insulin Requirement in Relation to Type and Quantity of Food.- 3.2.4 Counting Calories and Maintaining Body Weight.- 3.2.5 Teaching Tips.- 3.2.6 Problems in Dietary Counseling.- 3.3 Self-monitoring.- 3.3.1 Self-monitoring of Blood Glucose and Targets for Glycemic Control.- 3.3.2 Self-monitoring of Urine Glucose.- 3.3.3 Determination of Acetone in Urine.- 3.3.4 Targets for Glycemic Control.- 3.4 Strategies for Insulin Treatment.- 3.5 Insulin.- 3.5.1 Pharmacokinetics.- 3.5.2 Insulin Delivery.- 3.5.3 Special Aspects of the Practicability of Insulin Delivery.- 4 FIT Training (Phase II of Rehabilitation).- 4.1 Initial Algorithms, "K" and the Blood Glucose Target Value.- 4.2 Intermezzo 2: A Strategy for Failure - or How to Demotivate Even the Most Convinced Enthusiast.- 4.3 Introducing FIT in Practice.- 4.4 Pedagogical Aspects of Insulin Substitution: Transactional Analysis and "Insulin Games".- 4.5 Is "Yielding to Temptation" All Bad?.- 4.6 Testing Algorithms for Correcting Blood Glucose (and Determining the Kidney Threshold for Glucose). Why?.- 4.7 Why fast?.- 5 Criteria for Functional Insulin Treatment.- 5.1 Basal Substitution.- 5.1.1 Basal Insulin.- 5.1.2 Fasting Hyperglycemia and Compensation of Circadian Variation in Insulin Requirements.- 5.2 Prandial Insulin Substitution - Problems in Dosing Regular Insulin.- 5.3 Self-monitoring and Glycemic Control - Why Keep Records?.- 5.3.1 Record Keeping, Analysis and Evaluation of the Daily Net Result.- 5.3.2 Coping with Practical Problems.- 5.3.3 Frequency of Acute Complications.- 5.3.4 Contingence of Insulin Dose and Carbohydrate Intake on Measured Blood Glucose Level.- 6 Hypoglycemia.- 6.1 Definition of Hypoglycemia.- 6.2 Increased Probability of Severe Hypoglycemia.- 6.3 Causes of Hypoglycemia.- 6.4 Prevention of Hypoglycemia.- 6.5 Treatment of Hypoglycemia.- 7 Hyperglycemia.- 8 Rules for Algorithm Modification.- 8.1 Global Changes in Insulin Requirement.- 8.1.1 Global Decrease in Insulin Requirement.- 8.1.2 Global Increase in Insulin Requirement.- 8.2 Modification of Individual Algorithms.- 8.2.1 Modifying the Algorithm for Basal Insulin.- 8.2.2 Modifying the Algorithms for Prandial Insulin.- 8.2.3 Modifying the Algorithms for Correcting Blood Glucose Excursions.- 8.2.4 Modifying the Target Values for Current Blood Glucose and Target Range for Mean Blood Glucose.- 8.2.5 Interdependence of Algorithms.- 9 Physical Activity.- 9.1 Short, Sporadic Periods of Physical Activity.- 9.1.1 Physical Activity not Preceded by a Recent Injection of Regular Insulin.- 9.1.2 Physical Activity after Regular Insulin.- 9.1.3 Further Influences.- 9.2 Prolonged Periods of Physical Activity.- 10 Pregnancy in Type I (Insulin-Dependent) Diabetes.- 10.1 Patient Education Concerning Diabetes and Pregnancy.- 10.2 Consequences for Treatment.- 10.3 Interdisciplinary Care for Pregnant Diabetic Women.- 10.3.1 Diabetological Care: FIT.- 10.3.2 Obstetrical Care.- 10.3.3 Ophthalmological Care.- 10.3.4 Neonatal Care.- 10.4 Special Aspects of Secondary Adjustment of Insulin Dosage During Pregnancy and Childbirth.- 11 Functional Insulin Treatment for Type II Diabetes.- 11.1 Characteristics of Treatment of Type II Diabetes.- 11.2 Covering Basal Insulin Requirements in Insulin-Treated Type II Diabetic Patients.- 11.3 Special Aspects of the FIT Training Program for Type II Diabetic Patients.- 11.4 How Can Weight Loss Be Reached with Type II Diabetes During Functional Insulin Treatment.- 12 Coping with Special Situations.- 13 Frequent Patient-Related Problems.- 13.1 Grief-Work in P