The European Coal and Steel Community (häftad)
Häftad (Paperback / softback)
Antal sidor
1955 ed.
1 Illustrations, black and white; XII, 153 p. 1 illus.
244 x 170 x 9 mm
277 g
Antal komponenter
1 Paperback / softback
The European Coal and Steel Community (häftad)

The European Coal and Steel Community

Experiment in Supranationalism

Häftad Engelska, 1955-01-01
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The European Coal and Steel Community has been called "a new structure in the marches between internal and international law. " 1 To describe this new type of structure the term "supra national" has found increasing usage. Supranational organs have been defined as standing "midway between 'international' and federal organs. " International organizations - such as the United Nations or the Council of Europe - are based on the "sovereign equality" of their members and non-intervention in domestic affairs; they are really at the intergovernmental level. Supra national organs transcend international organizations in both these respects without, however, constituting a federal state. They are based "not on a mere restriction, but on a transfer of [national] sovereignty, but a transfer of sovereignty in a particu lar area only. " 2 This pilot experiment in supranational organization is of twofold importance. In the first place, although operating on a regional level only, it could teach valuable lessons concerning future attempts at world organization through the "functional approach. " In Prof. Mitrany's words, national divisions must be overlaid "with a spreading web of international activities and agencies, in which and through which the interests and life of all the nations would be gradually integrated. " 3 The Coal and Steel Community could be an excellent testing ground for the develop ment of an international community, growing from the satis faction of common needs which people of different nations share.
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Bloggat om The European Coal and Steel Community


I. Ratification.- A. The Reception of the Schuman Plan in the Countries of the Community and England.- France.- Germany.- Italy.- Belgium.- Netherlands.- Luxembourg.- England.- B. The Ratification Debates.- 1. The Surrender of National Sovereignty.- Supporters.- Opposition to the surrender of national sovereignty.- 2. Constitutional Questions.- Luxembourg.- Belgium.- Netherlands.- France.- Germany.- 3. The Issue of Democracy.- The High Authority.- The Assembly.- The Court.- 4. Fears and Suspicions.- "Real" French motives.- Fear of German hegemony.- The Communist line.- Neutralism.- II. Legal Structure.- A. Independence of CSC Organs Versus Member States.- 1. The High Authority.- Appointment and tenure of members.- System of voting.- Financial independence.- Gathering of information.- Sanctions against delinquent states.- 2. The Court.- Organization.- General jurisdiction.- Special jurisdiction.- Conflicts between national tribunals and the Court..- Enforcement.- Character of the Court.- 3. Other Organs.- The Assembly.- The Council of Ministers.- The Consultative Committee.- 4. Amendments.- B. Powers Granted CSC Organs to Interfere in The Affairs of Member States.- 1. General Restrictions on Member States.- 2. Investment Powers.- General objectives.- Veto of investments.- Loans.- 3. Crisis Powers.- Shortages.- Overproduction.- Minimum and maximum prices.- Unemployment.- 4. Discriminatory and Monopolistic Practices.- Agreements and concentrations.- Unfair pricing practices.- Discriminatory transport rates.- "Abnormally low" wage levels.- Elastic clause.- 5. Trade with Nations Outside the Community.- 6. The Convention Containing the Transitional Provisions.- The compensation levy on coal.- Additional protection to Belgian coal.- Additional protection to Italian coking plants and French coal.- Special provisions for the steel industry.- 7. Conclusions on the Legal Structure of the Community.- The regulated market.- Concurrent jurisdiction.- The governmental character of the High Authority..- III. Operations 1952-1954.- A. Cartels.- 1. Actions of the High Authority.- Scrap, iron, and steel cartels.- Coal cartels.- Concentrations.- 2. Reactions from Member Nations.- The German reaction.- The Dutch reaction.- Reactions from other member nations.- B. Investments.- 1. Policy of the High Authority.- General policies.- Priorities.- Specific prospects for steel, coal, and iron.- Workers' housing.- 2. Reactions of the Assembly.- Dirigisme versus laissez-faire.- Priorities.- 3. The United States-CSC Loan.- C. National Planks.- Canalization of the Moselle.- The Borinage mines.- Free movement of labor.- D. Institutional Developments.- 1. The High Authority.- The collegiate system.- Administrative divisions of the High Authority's staff.- 2. The Assembly.- Relations with the High Authority.- Organization of Assembly committees.- Political factions.- Language problems.- Suggested reforms of the Assembly.- 3. The Court.- Cases before the Court.- The Government of the French Republic v. the High Authority.- The Government of the Italian Republic v. the High Authority.- The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands v. the High Authority.- 4. British "Association".- IV. Conclusions.- A. The Nature of Supranational Organization.- 1. Beyond International Organization.- 2. Below Federal Organization.- 3. Prerequisites for Supranational Organization.- 4. Antecedents of the CSC.- B. Prospects for the CSC.- 1. The Defeat of EDC.- 2. Can the CSC Survive Alone?.- Selected Bibliography.