Sarcophaga of France (diptera: Sarcophaidae) (inbunden)
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Sarcophaga of France (diptera: Sarcophaidae)

Diptera: Sarcophagidae

Inbunden, Engelska, 2011-07-15
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Pandelle (1896) provided the first comprehensive account of the French species of Sarcophaga. Although he was the first to fully understand the diagnostic value of the male terminalia and to apply this in his work, Pandelle did not provide a single illustration. The next major contribution was by Seguy (1941), who illustrated all species and gave an outline of their distribution. As relatively little collecting had been done at the time, there were few locality records. Richet (1991) increased our knowledge of the distribution when he published maps showing departmental records for each species based mainly on his own collection and material in the MNHN. The distribution maps in the present paper (Plates 123 - 130) are the result of further collecting and they are based entirely on material, including museum specimens, examined and identified by the authors. A complete list of collecting records is also given. Until now identification has depended largely on the works of Rohdendorf (1937), Seguy (1941), Mihalyi (1979), Pape (1987) and Povolny and Verves (1997). Gobert's catalogue (1887) and Pandelle's work (1896) give us an idea of the French species known at the time but are not very useful for species identification. Rohdendorf (1937) built on the works of particularly Bottcher (1912a,b,c; 1913a,b), which clearly proved the crucial importance of the male terminalia in identification, and provided illustrations and keys for nearly every Palearctic species then known. Seguy (1941) gave figures of the male terminalia but did not use the characters of the phallus in his keys or descriptions. There have been considerable changes in both taxonomy and nomenclature since Seguy's (1941) work, many new species have been described and the detailed structure of the phallus has become still better known, often revealing complexes of surprisingly similar species. This work lists 93 species of Sarcophaga found in France and incorporates recent taxonomic and nomenclatural changes. Detailed photographs are provided of the diagnostic structures in the male terminalia of all the species, and two separate keys are given for their identification, one for French species only, the other for European species. The structure of the female terminalia has received less attention than that of males and, with the exception of a few species, the identification of females is more difficult. In this paper, as a result largely of the rearing techniques of one of us (R. Richet), it has been possible to include photographs of the female terminalia of 84 species together with keys for their identification. Likewise, it has been possible to provide photographs of some features of the larvae (habitus of first instar, cephaloskeleton of instars 1 - 3 and spiracles of instars 2 and 3) of 65 species.
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Övrig information

Rene Richet: Rene is a retired school teacher since September 2003 and an amateur dipterist since 1984 specialising in the study of French Sarcophagidae. Rene has collected in most parts of France, but particularly in Pas-de-Calais, the Alps and the Pyrenees, and the southern parts of Massif Central. His long-term goal is to document the male, female and all three larval instars of each species of French flesh flies, and special techniques have been developed for the breeding of individual species and dissection and preparation of larvae. Ruth M. Blackith: As a research associate of the University of Dublin, Ruth started her studies on flesh flies with a work on larval aggression in Irish species of Sarcophaga (sensu lato). Apart from some work on the taxonomy and biology of flesh flies collected during the Royal Entomological Society of London's expedition to Sulawesi, her work has concentrated on European species of Sarcophaga (s.l.). She made several collecting trips to France with her husband Robert Blackith, after his retirement from the University of Dublin in 1987, resulting in a large number of specimens, which have greatly increased our knowledge of the French fauna of Sarcophaga (s.l.) spp. Thomas Pape: Thomas started studying flesh flies when preparing for his Master's thesis under Leif Lyneborg at the University of Copenhagen, and while the thesis eventually was written on wood-louse flies (Rhinophoridae), his PhD-thesis was on the taxonomy and systematics of the large flesh fly genus Blaesoxipha. He has published extensively on the world fauna of Sarcophagidae since 1985, and over the years he has done field work on flesh flies on all continents. He published the first catalogue of the flesh fly species of the world in 1996, which has been continuously updated.


ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE TEXT, FIGURES AND PLATES 7 Introduction 8 Taxonomy and nomenclature 9 List of species found in France 11 Morphology 15 Male terminalia 15 Female terminalia 17 Techniques 19 Preparation of specimens 19 Adults 19 Larvae 22 Photography 22 Rearing 23 Biology of the species 25 General comments 25 Biology of individual species 27 Collecting 35 LOCALITY DATA 36 Distribution 45 General comments 45 Distribution of individual species 45 Group 1. Species that are new records for France 46 Group 2. Species recorded from France prior to 1941 but none, or very few, collected since 48 Group 3. Species found mainly in the Mediterranean region 49 Group 4. Species found mainly in the south but not restricted to the Mediterranean 51 Group 5. Species that are uncommon and have a limited, often fragmented, distribution 53 Group 6. Species that are uncommon but widely distributed 56 Group 7. Species that are common and widely distributed 59 Group 8. Species found in Corsica but not in mainland France 65 Conservation status 66 Keys for identification 68 Keys 1a - h: Males of European species [except for Key 1b] 68 Key 1a to males of the main groups in the genus Sarcophaga 68 Key 1b to males of Sarcophaga (Sarcophaga); French species only 72 Key 1c to males of S. (Liopygia), S. (Liosarcophaga), S. (Pandelleisca), S. (Parasarcophaga), S. (Robineauella), S. (Rosellea) and S. (Varirosellea) 74 Key 1d to males of Sarcophaga (Thyrsocnema) 79 Key 1e to males of Sarcophaga (Helicophagella) 80 Key 1f to males of Sarcophaga (Discachaeta) and S. (Heteronychia) 82 Key 1g to males of Sarcophaga (Mehria) and S. (Myorhina) 95 Key 1h to males of Sarcophaga (Pandelleana) 96 Key 2: Males of French species only 97 Key 3: Females of French species only 106 Locality records for Sarcophaga spp. in France 115 Acknowledgements 170 References 171 FIGURES 185 Plates 191 Maps 313 Index to species in the Plates 322 Index by Plate 322 Index by species 326