- Inbunden (Hardback)
- Antal sidor
- 1997 ed.
- Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. K
- Borrell, P. (ed.), Builtjes, P. (ed.), Grennfelt, P. (ed.)
- 18 Tab 24 Abb
- 18 Tables, black and white; XXII, 216 p.
- 234 x 156 x 14 mm
- Antal komponenter
- 1 Hardback
- 518 g
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Photo-oxidants, Acidification and Tools: Policy Applications of EUROTRAC Results
The Report of the EUROTRAC Application Project1439
EUROTRAC is the EUREKA environmental project studying the transport and chemical transformation of pollutants in the troposphere over Europe. At its inception in 1988 it had three aims: * to increase the basic understanding of atmospheric science; * to promote the technological development of sensitive, specific, fast-response instrumentation for environmental research and monitoring; and * to improve the scientific basis for taking future political decisions on environmental management within Europe. It was clear at an early stage, as the fourteen subprojects were formed and more than two hundred research groups in twenty-four countries were incorporated, that the first aim would readily be achieved. An ample demonstration that the early indications were correct is provided in the other volumes in this series which describe the scientific progress made. Substantial progress was also made towards achieving the second aim although some problems were encountered, mainly due to the high cost of the technological development required.
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"This book presents a very good introduction to combinatorics. It covers most aspects of enumeration and order theory,... It is divided into three parts. The first part presents the basic material on mappings and posets... The second part deals with enumeration ... Finally the third part treats of the order-theoretic aspects ... In the text examples are given and at the end of each chapter valuable notes, also very good selected exercises. They constitute an organic part of the book. This book can warmly be recommended first of all to students interested in combinatorics. A two semester course can also be based on it." -Publicationes Mathematicae Debrecen
1 Executive Summary.- 2 Environmental Problems, Policies and EUROTRAC.- 2.1 The Atmosphere as a Recipient and Transport Medium for Pollutants.- 2.2 Environmental Problems.- 2.2.1 Environmental problems covered by EUROTRAC.- 2.2.2 Photochemical oxidant effects.- 2.2.3 Acidification and eutrophication.- 2.2.4 Links to global effects.- 2.3 Policies.- 2.3.1 Policies used to combat regional air pollution.- 2.3.2 Policies used to combat global problems.- 2.4 EUROTRAC and its Application Project.- 2.4.1 EUROTRAC: the successful scientific programme.- 2.4.2 The Application Project (AP).- 2.4.3 The organisation of the Application Project report.- 2.5 Acknowledgements.- 2.6 References.- 3 Photo-oxidants.- 3.1 Environmental Policy Issues Related to Photo-oxidants.- 3.2 Scientific Findings of Importance for Environmental Policy.- 3.2.1 Trends in photo-oxidant concentrations.- 3.2.2 Emissions.- 3.2.3 Processes influencing the concentration of photo-oxidants.- 3.2.4 Local and urban photo-oxidants.- 3.2.5 Regional or continental photo-oxidants.- 3.2.6 Photo-oxidants on a global scale.- 3.3 Applications and Importance for Environmental Policy, Potential for Applications.- 3.3.1 Local and urban photo-oxidants.- 3.3.2 Regional or continental photo-oxidants.- 3.3.3 Photo-oxidants on the global scale.- 3.4 References.- 4 Acidification and Deposition of Nutrients.- 4.1 Environmental policy issues related to acidic deposition and deposition of nutrients.- 4.2 Scientific Assessment - Issues and Highlights.- 4.2.1 Emissions.- 4.2.2 Atmospheric processes.- 4.2.3 Non-linearities in source-receptor relationships.- 4.2.4 Deposition.- 4.3 Applications and Implications for Policies.- 4.3.1 Quantification of emissions.- 4.3.2 Cloud chemistry.- 4.3.3 Atmospheric deposition.- 4.3.4 The development and application of source-receptor models for policy.- 4.3.5 The influence of sulphate aerosols on the radiation balance.- 4.4 Conclusions. Future Potential for Applications.- 4.4.1 Gaps in knowledge - uncertainties.- 4.4.2 Needs for improvements of application models etc.- 4.5 References.- 5 Contribution of EUROTRAC to the Development of Tools for the Study of Environmentally Relevant Trace Constituents.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.1.1 Instruments.- 5.1.2 Laboratory studies.- 5.1.3 Models.- 5.1.4 Further tools.- 5.2 Instruments.- 5.2.1 Instrument development within EUROTRAC.- 5.2.2 Instrument subprojects within EUROTRAC.- 5.2.3 Instrument development in the experimental subprojects.- 5.2.4 Some reflections on instrument development within EUROTRAC.- 5.2.5 Conclusions and recommendations.- 5.3 Laboratory Studies.- 5.3.1 Laboratory studies and their scope.- 5.3.2 Some highlights of the scientific advances 1 concerned with photo-oxidants.- 5.3.3 Some highlights of the scientific advances concerned with heterogeneous chemistry.- 5.3.4 Incorporation of laboratory results into simulation model.- 5.3.5 Development of laboratory techniques within the programmes.- 5.3.6 Needs for the future.- 5.4 Models.- 5.4.1 Introduction.- 5.4.2 Regional simulation models.- 5.4.3 Urban simulation models.- 5.4.4 Simulation models on a global scale.- 5.4.5 Validation of simulation models.- 5.4.6 Process-oriented models.- 5.4.7 Conclusions and recommendations for future applications.- 5.5 Other Tools.- 5.5.1 Databases from field experiments.- 5.5.2 Emission and land-use databases.- 5.5.3 Monitoring networks.- 5.5.4 Hidden tools.- 5.5.5 A network of scientists.- 5.6 References.- Appendices.- A. The Application Project Description.- B. The EUROTRAC subprojects with their aims.