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Introduction to Cities
How Place and Space Shape Human Experience
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Xiangming Chen is the founding Dean and Director of the Center for Urban and Global Studies and Paul Raether Distinguished Professor of Global Urban Studies and Sociology at Trinity College, Hartford, and a guest professor in the School of Social Development and Public Policy at Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Anthony M. Orum is Professor Emeritus of Sociology at the University of Illinois at Chicago, USA. He was the founding editor of the journal City & Community. Krista E. Paulsen is Associate Professor of Sociology and Associate Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at the University of North Florida, USA.
List of illustrations xi List of tables xvii List of boxes xviii About the authors xx Acknowledgments xxi Walk-through tour xxiii Part I The foundations 5 1 Cities as places and spaces 6 Cities as places 9 Exploring further 1.1 11 Identity, community, and security 14 Places as the site of our identity 14 Places as the site of community 15 Places as sites of security 16 Studying the city 1.1 17 Human beings make and remake places 17 Place and space 20 Studying the city 1.2 21 Making the city better 1.1 24 Cities shape the fates of human beings 25 Cities and people 26 2 Social theories of urban space and place: The early perspectives 28 The social and theoretical roots of modern urban theory 29 Studying the city 2.1 31 Ferdinand Toennies: Community and society 32 Georg Simmel: The metropolis and mental life 33 Toennies and Simmel: Further reflections 35 The Chicago School of Sociology 38 The city as social space 39 The city, social change, and social order 40 Studying the city 2.2 42 Life in the city as a way of life 44 Making the city better 2.1 46 Early social theories of urban life 47 3 Social theories of urban space and place: Perspectives in the post-World War II era 49 Theoretical descendents of Marx 50 Manuel Castells and the urban question 50 David Harvey: Injustice and inequality in the city 51 John Logan and Harvey Molotch: The city as a growth machine 53 Making the city better 3.1 54 Making the city better 3.2 56 Further reflections: Marx and the critique of modern cities 57 The return to place and the turn to culture 58 Jane Jacobs and the discovery of community in the modern metropolis 58 Studying the city 3.1 59 Sharon Zukin and the turn to culture 61 Exploring further 3.1 63 Going global: The 1980s and the creation of the global city 66 Evaluating theories of the city 69 4 Methods and rules for the study of cities 72 First rules for doing a social science of cities 74 The rule of validity 74 The rule of reliability 76 Exploring further 4.1 77 Cities and the question of numbers 78 Studying the city 4.1 79 The city as a case study 80 The city as the typical case 82 The city as a prototypical case 85 Ethnographic and historical case studies 87 Ethnographic case studies 87 Studying the city 4.2 89 Historical case studies 90 From one to multiple cases 91 Studying the city 4.3 94 A last but very important rule on doing a good social science of cities: Fitting good theory to good methods 94 And what about insight? 95 Part II The changing metropolis 99 5 The metropolis and its expansion: Early insights and basic principles 100 Metropolitan growth: Basic features 102 The metropolis and its expansion 104 The center of the city 105 The zone of transition 106 The zone of commuters 106 Assessing the concentric zone theory 106 The natural areas of the city 107 Alternative views of the city 107 Studying the city 5.1 108 The mobility of people and groups in the metropolis 109 Social differences and migration in the metropolis 109 Exploring further 5.1? 110 Migration and the expansion of the metropolis 113 The metropolitan center and its links to the hinterlands 115 Human agents and social institutions in the expansion of the metropolis 116 Studying the city 5.2 117 Making the city better 5.1 120 Planning and metropolitan development (new) Urban growth, institutions, and human agents 121 6 The origins and development of suburbs 123 What is a suburb? Definitions and variations 125 Alternative suburban forms 127 A brief history of suburban development 129 The original suburbs 129 Culture and the demand for suburban living 131 Making the city better 6.1 133 Expl