Designing Human-centred Technology (häftad)
Häftad (Paperback / softback)
Antal sidor
Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1989
Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg GmbH & Co. K
Rosenbrock, Howard (ed.)
XVI, 208 p.
244 x 170 x 12 mm
368 g
Antal komponenter
1 Paperback / softback
Designing Human-centred Technology (häftad)

Designing Human-centred Technology

A Cross-disciplinary Project in Computer-aided Manufacturing

Häftad Engelska, 1989-10-01
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This second book in our series Artificial Intelligence and Society explores the issues involved in the design and application of human-centred systems in the manufacturing area. At first glance it may appear that a book on this topic is somewhat peripheral to the main concerns of the series. In fact, although starting from an engineering perspective, the book addresses some of the pivotal issues confronting those who apply new technology in general and artificial intelligence (AI) systems in particular. Above all, the book invites us to consider whether the present applications of technology are such as to make the best use of human skill and ingenuity and at the same time provide for realistic and economically sustainable systems design solutions. To do so it is necessary to provide systems which support the skill, and are amenable to the cultures, of the areas of application in question. In a philosophical sense it means providing tools to support skills rather than machines which replace them, to use Heidegger's distinction. The book gives an authoritative account of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST) tradition of human-centredness and provides a participatory design ap proach which focuses on collaborative learning and enhancement and creation of new skills. It also argues that collaboration should be supported by institutions through the creation of supportive infrastructures and research environments. It emphasises the optimisation of practical knowledge with the help of scientific knowledge and rejects the alternative.
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1. The Background to the Project.- Why is Taylorism so Widespread?.- An Alternative Technology?.- The Steering Committee.- The Application for Funding.- Steering Committee Discussions.- Methodology.- The Aims of the Project.- 2. The Technical Problem.- Some History.- Numerical Control.- Record-Playback.- Cutting Technology.- Design.- Learning, but Learning What?.- My Own View.- Terminology.- 3. Towards a Design Methodology: A Psychologist's View.- The Design Context.- Design Criteria Related to the Human as a Component of the System.- Design Criteria Related to the System as the Operator's Environment.- Heuristics in Design Negotiation: The 'Blank Table Debate'.- Towards an Interactive Design Process.- Conclusion.- Appendix: Operator Control and Automation Howard Rosenbrock and Martin Corbett.- 4. The Social and Engineering Design of Computer Numerically Controlled Technology.- Numerical Control Technology.- The Development of Cutting Technology Software.- The 'Blank Table Debate' - A Divergence of Opinion.- Conclusions and Personal Reflections - The Engineer as a Social Scientist.- 5. A Computer Science View.- Software Structure.- Aspects of the UMIST System.- Software Development.- Use of Alternative Programming Methods.- Conclusion.- Appendix: Skeleton Syntax for Part-programs.- 6. On the Collaboration Between Social Scientists and Engineers.- Background - The Dynamics.- Models of Science.- Operational Issues.- Making It Happen - Institutions and Infrastructure.- 7. (How) Can Technology be Redirected? A Scandinavian Perspective.- The Concept of Non-subordinating Machinery.- Methodologies for Designing Redirected Technology.- Was the Project Appropriate and Efficacious in a Redirection Effort?.- Future Developments.- 8. A Works Director's View.- Evolution of New Technology and Human Skills.- The Operator, His Machine, and a Human-centred Approach to Technology.- The UMIST Project.- Conclusion.- 9. The Coordinator's View.- General Achievements.- The Conduct of the Project.- Cross-disciplinary Work by Engineers and Social Scientists.- The Importance of Management and of Technical Process Development in Human-centred Working.- The Future.- Final Comment.- 10. Human-centred Systems.- The Early Stages.- Technology, Science and Ideology.- Proposals for a New Approach.- First Practical Moves.- Issues of Status, Skill and Uncertainty.- Human-centred Capabilities.- Future Development of Human-centredness.- 11. The ESPRIT Project.- and Summary.- The Meaning of Human-centredness.- The Factory of the Future.- ESPRIT Project 1217 (1199).- CIM Design Considerations.- The BITZ Demonstration Site.- The Shop-floor Monitor and Controller.- The Sketching Module.- The BICC Demonstration Site.- The Rolls Royce Demonstration Site.- The Human-centred Lathe Controller.- Concluding Remarks.- Appendix: Participating Organisations.- 12. Postscript.- Appendices.- 1. Short CVs of Contributors.- 2. SERC Application.- 3. Transcript of a Part of the Steering Committee Meeting Held on 12 July 1982.